et al., Nutr. Hosp.,
Retrospective 80 hospitalized patients in Spain showing higher risk of severe COVID-19 with vitamin D deficiency.
Macaya et al., 10/21/2020, retrospective, Spain, Europe, peer-reviewed, 8 authors.
risk of COVID-19 severe case, 55.0% lower, RR 0.45, p = 0.07, high D levels 11 of 35 (31.4%), low D levels 20 of 45 (44.4%), odds ratio converted to relative risk, >20ng/mL.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules
prioritizing more serious outcomes. For an individual study the most serious
outcome may have a smaller number of events and lower statistical signficance,
however this provides the strongest evidence for the most serious outcomes
when combining the results of many trials.