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0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Hospitalization 49% Improvement Relative Risk Symptomatic case -7% Case 17% Hospitalization (b) 67% Symptomatic case (b) 9% Case (b) 52% c19vitamind.com/ma2.html Favors vitamin D Favors control
3 December 2021 - Prophylaxis study
Associations between predicted vitamin D status, vitamin D intake, and risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and Coronavirus Disease 2019 severity
Ma et al., The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, doi:10.1093/ajcn/nqab389 (Peer Reviewed)
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Analysis of 39,915 patients with 1,768 COVID+ cases based on surveys in the Nurses' Health Study II, showing higher predicted vitamin D levels associated with lower risk of COVID-19 cases. There was significantly lower risk of hospitalization with vitamin D supplementation (≥400 IU/d), but no significant differences for cases based on supplementation.
risk of hospitalization, 49.0% lower, RR 0.51, p = 0.04, treatment 26,605, control 12,710, adjusted per study, supplementation ≥400 IU/day, model 3, supplemental table 3, multivariable, RR approximated with OR.
risk of symptomatic case, 7.0% higher, RR 1.07, p = 0.25, treatment 7,895, control 31,420, adjusted per study, supplementation ≥2000 IU/day vs. <400 IU/day, model 3, supplemental table 3, multivariable, RR approximated with OR.
risk of case, 17.0% lower, RR 0.83, p = 0.07, treatment 7,895, control 31,420, adjusted per study, supplementation ≥2000 IU/day vs. <400 IU/day, model 3, supplemental table 3, multivariable, RR approximated with OR.
risk of hospitalization, 67.0% lower, RR 0.33, p = 0.15, high D levels 7,893, low D levels 7,823, adjusted per study, highest quintile vs. lowest quintile predicted vitamin D levels, model 3, supplemental table 3, multivariable, RR approximated with OR.
risk of symptomatic case, 9.0% lower, RR 0.91, p = 0.52, high D levels 7,893, low D levels 7,823, adjusted per study, highest quintile vs. lowest quintile predicted vitamin D levels, model 3, supplemental table 3, multivariable, RR approximated with OR.
risk of case, 52.0% lower, RR 0.48, p = 0.01, high D levels 7,893, low D levels 7,823, adjusted per study, highest quintile vs. lowest quintile predicted vitamin D levels, model 3, supplemental table 3, multivariable, RR approximated with OR.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes.
Ma et al., 12/3/2021, retrospective, USA, North America, peer-reviewed, 16 authors, study period May 2020 - March 2021, dosage varies.
Contact: achan@mgh.harvard.edu.
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