Prospective study of 204 patients with COVID-19-like pneumonia in Turkey, 42 outpatients (mild cases), and 162 inpatients (serious cases), showing significantly higher risk of severe cases with vitamin D deficiency.
risk of severe case, 68.6% lower, RR 0.31, p = 0.005, high D levels 82 of 119 (68.9%), low D levels 80 of 85 (94.1%), odds ratio converted to relative risk, >10μg/L, per standard deviation increase in levels.
Basaran et al., 2/12/2021, retrospective, Turkey, Europe, peer-reviewed, 6 authors.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules
prioritizing more serious outcomes. For an individual study the most serious
outcome may have a smaller number of events and lower statistical significance,
however this provides the strongest evidence for the most serious outcomes
when combining the results of many trials.