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Vitamin D study #28 of 96
10/5 Analysis of outcomes based on serum levels
Yılmaz et al., Pediatric Pulmonology, doi:10.1002/ppul.25106 (Peer Reviewed)
Is vitamin D deficiency a risk factor for COVID‐19 in children?
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Retrospective 40 hospitalized pediatric COVID-19 patients and 45 healthy controls showing significantly lower vitamin D levels for COVID-19 patients (13.1 vs. 34.8µg/L), and that, within the hospitalized patients, there was more moderate and severe cases for patients with low vitamin D levels (non-statistically significant due to the small numbers).

Yılmaz et al., 10/5/2020, retrospective, Turkey, Middle East, peer-reviewed, 2 authors.
risk of severe case, 73.4% lower, RR 0.27, p = 1.00, high D levels 0 of 11 (0.0%), low D levels 2 of 29 (6.9%), continuity correction due to zero event (with reciprocal of the contrasting arm), >20ng/ml.
risk of moderate or severe case, 41.4% lower, RR 0.59, p = 0.69, high D levels 2 of 11 (18.2%), low D levels 9 of 29 (31.0%), >20ng/ml.

Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. For an individual study the most serious outcome may have a smaller number of events and lower statistical signficance, however this provides the strongest evidence for the most serious outcomes when combining the results of many trials.
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