Retrospective 40 hospitalized pediatric COVID-19 patients and 45 healthy controls showing significantly lower vitamin D levels for COVID-19 patients (13.1 vs. 34.8µg/L), and that, within the hospitalized patients, there was more moderate and severe cases for patients with low vitamin D levels (non-statistically significant due to the small numbers).
Yılmaz et al., 10/5/2020, retrospective, Turkey, Europe, peer-reviewed, 2 authors.
risk of severe case, 73.4% lower, RR 0.27, p = 1.00, high D levels 0 of 11 (0.0%), low D levels 2 of 29 (6.9%), continuity correction due to zero event (with reciprocal of the contrasting arm), >20ng/ml.
risk of moderate or severe case, 41.4% lower, RR 0.59, p = 0.69, high D levels 2 of 11 (18.2%), low D levels 9 of 29 (31.0%), >20ng/ml.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules
prioritizing more serious outcomes. For an individual study the most serious
outcome may have a smaller number of events and lower statistical signficance,
however this provides the strongest evidence for the most serious outcomes
when combining the results of many trials.