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Vitamin D study #93 of 96
4/5 Analysis of outcomes based on serum levels
Ünsal et al., Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, doi:10.1007/s40618-021-01566-9 (Peer Reviewed)
Retrospective analysis of vitamin D status on ınflammatory markers and course of the disease in patients with COVID-19 infection
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Retrospective 56 patients in Turkey showing greater need for oxygen therapy and higher mortality with vitamin D deficiency, and significantly lower risk of pneumonia with vitamin D supplementation.

Ünsal et al., 4/5/2021, retrospective, Turkey, Europe, peer-reviewed, 10 authors.
risk of death, 80.6% lower, RR 0.19, p = 0.23, high D levels 0 of 29 (0.0%), low D levels 2 of 27 (7.4%), continuity correction due to zero event (with reciprocal of the contrasting arm), >=20ng/mL.
risk of oxygen therapy, 73.4% lower, RR 0.27, p = 0.07, high D levels 2 of 29 (6.9%), low D levels 7 of 27 (25.9%), >=20ng/mL.

Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. For an individual study the most serious outcome may have a smaller number of events and lower statistical signficance, however this provides the strongest evidence for the most serious outcomes when combining the results of many trials.
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