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Vitamin D study #57 of 96
12/30 Analysis of outcomes based on serum levels
Szeto et al., Endocrine Research, doi:10.1080/07435800.2020.1867162 (Peer Reviewed)
Vitamin D Status and COVID-19 Clinical Outcomes in Hospitalized Patients
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Retrospective 93 hospitalized patients with vitamin D levels 1-365 days before admission, not showing significant differences with vitamin D deficiency or vitamin D levels. Vitamin D levels may vary significantly throughout the year creating a major cofounder that authors do not adjust for.

Szeto et al., 12/30/2020, retrospective, USA, North America, peer-reviewed, 7 authors.
risk of death, 5.6% higher, RR 1.06, p = 1.00, high D levels 14 of 58 (24.1%), low D levels 8 of 35 (22.9%).
risk of mechanical ventilation, 39.7% lower, RR 0.60, p = 0.21, high D levels 10 of 58 (17.2%), low D levels 10 of 35 (28.6%).
risk of no hospital discharge, 26.7% higher, RR 1.27, p = 0.50, high D levels 21 of 58 (36.2%), low D levels 10 of 35 (28.6%).

Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. For an individual study the most serious outcome may have a smaller number of events and lower statistical signficance, however this provides the strongest evidence for the most serious outcomes when combining the results of many trials.
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