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0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Mortality 45% Improvement Relative Risk Mortality (b) 40% Mortality (c) 35% Mortality (d) 26% Mortality (e) 20% Mortality (f) 12% Hospitalization 22% Hospitalization (b) 20% Hospitalization (c) 17% Hospitalization (d) 12% Hospitalization (e) 9% Hospitalization (f) 5% c19vitamind.com/seal.html Favors vitamin D Favors control
1 January 2022 - Analysis of outcomes based on serum levels
Association of Vitamin D Status and COVID-19-Related Hospitalization and Mortality
Seal et al., Journal of General Internal Medicine, doi:10.1007/s11606-021-07170-0 (Peer Reviewed)
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Retrospective 4,599 COVID+ veterans in the USA with vitamin D levels measured 15 to 90 days prior to testing positive, showing a significant independent inverse dose-response relationship between vitamin D levels (from 15 to 60ng/mL) and decreasing risk of hospitalization (24.1% to 18.7%, p = 0.009) and mortality (10.4% to 5.7%, p = 0.001).
risk of death, 45.1% lower, RR 0.55, p = 0.001, adjusted per study, 60ng/mL vs. 15 ng/mL.
risk of death, 40.5% lower, RR 0.60, p = 0.001, adjusted per study, 50ng/mL vs. 15 ng/mL.
risk of death, 34.6% lower, RR 0.65, p = 0.001, adjusted per study, 40ng/mL vs. 15 ng/mL.
risk of death, 25.9% lower, RR 0.74, p = 0.001, adjusted per study, 30ng/mL vs. 15 ng/mL.
risk of death, 20.0% lower, RR 0.80, p = 0.001, adjusted per study, 25ng/mL vs. 15 ng/mL.
risk of death, 11.5% lower, RR 0.88, p = 0.001, adjusted per study, 20ng/mL vs. 15 ng/mL.
risk of hospitalization, 22.5% lower, RR 0.78, p = 0.01, adjusted per study, 60ng/mL vs. 15 ng/mL.
risk of hospitalization, 20.0% lower, RR 0.80, p = 0.009, adjusted per study, 50ng/mL vs. 15 ng/mL.
risk of hospitalization, 16.7% lower, RR 0.83, p = 0.007, adjusted per study, 40ng/mL vs. 15 ng/mL.
risk of hospitalization, 12.3% lower, RR 0.88, p = 0.008, adjusted per study, 30ng/mL vs. 15 ng/mL.
risk of hospitalization, 9.1% lower, RR 0.91, p = 0.01, adjusted per study, 25ng/mL vs. 15 ng/mL.
risk of hospitalization, 4.8% lower, RR 0.95, p = 0.02, adjusted per study, 20ng/mL vs. 15 ng/mL.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes.
Seal et al., 1/1/2022, retrospective, USA, North America, peer-reviewed, 6 authors.
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