Retrospective 52 hospitalized COVID-19 patients showing that vitamin D deficiency is associated with compromised inflammatory responses and higher pulmonary involvement. Vitamin D deficient patients also showed higher mortality, although not quite reaching statistical significance with the small sample size.
Ricci et al., 3/3/2021, retrospective, Italy, Europe, peer-reviewed, 15 authors.
risk of death, 87.6% lower, RR 0.12, p = 0.07, high D levels 0 of 30 (0.0%), low D levels 3 of 22 (13.6%), continuity correction due to zero event (with reciprocal of the contrasting arm), >10 ng/mL.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules
prioritizing more serious outcomes. For an individual study the most serious
outcome may have a smaller number of events and lower statistical signficance,
however this provides the strongest evidence for the most serious outcomes
when combining the results of many trials.