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Vitamin D study #80 of 109
3/3 Analysis of outcomes based on serum levels
Ricci et al., Respiratory Research, doi:10.1186/s12931-021-01666-3 (Peer Reviewed)
Circulating Vitamin D levels status and clinical prognostic indices in COVID-19 patients
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Retrospective 52 hospitalized COVID-19 patients showing that vitamin D deficiency is associated with compromised inflammatory responses and higher pulmonary involvement. Vitamin D deficient patients also showed higher mortality, although not quite reaching statistical significance with the small sample size.

Ricci et al., 3/3/2021, retrospective, Italy, Europe, peer-reviewed, 15 authors.
risk of death, 87.6% lower, RR 0.12, p = 0.07, high D levels 0 of 30 (0.0%), low D levels 3 of 22 (13.6%), continuity correction due to zero event (with reciprocal of the contrasting arm), >10 ng/mL.

Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. For an individual study the most serious outcome may have a smaller number of events and lower statistical signficance, however this provides the strongest evidence for the most serious outcomes when combining the results of many trials.
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