Retrospective 165 hospitalized patients with known vitamin D levels, showing an associated between vitamin D deficiency and ICU admission. There was no statistically significant difference in clinical outcomes for ICU patients. It's unclear why authors do not provide clinical outcomes for all patients rather than ICU only.
Orchard et al., 1/19/2021, retrospective, United Kingdom, Europe, peer-reviewed, 7 authors.
risk of ICU admission, 58.8% lower, RR 0.41, p = 0.001, high D levels 9 of 40 (22.5%), low D levels 41 of 75 (54.7%), all hospitalized patients, >50 nmol/L.
risk of death, 24.1% lower, RR 0.76, p = 1.00, high D levels 1 of 9 (11.1%), low D levels 6 of 41 (14.6%), ICU patients only, >50 nmol/L.
risk of mechanical ventilation, 8.9% lower, RR 0.91, p = 0.70, high D levels 6 of 9 (66.7%), low D levels 30 of 41 (73.2%), ICU patients only, >50 nmol/L.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules
prioritizing more serious outcomes. For an individual study the most serious
outcome may have a smaller number of events and lower statistical signficance,
however this provides the strongest evidence for the most serious outcomes
when combining the results of many trials.