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Vitamin D study #12 of 69
7/23 Analysis of outcomes based on serum levels
Merzon et al., The FEBS Journal, (Peer Reviewed)
Low plasma 25(OH) vitamin D level is associated with increased risk of COVID‐19 infection: an Israeli population‐based study
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Analysis of 7,807 patients finding that low vitamin D levels are correlated with increased risk of cases and hospitalization. Adjusted odds ratio OR for sufficient vitamin D level for cases 0.69, p < 0.001, and for hospitalization 0.51, p = 0.061.

Merzon et al., 7/23/2020, retrospective, Israel, Middle East, peer-reviewed, 3 authors.
risk of hospitalization, 46.4% lower, RR 0.54, p = 0.06, high D levels 79, low D levels 703, odds ratio converted to relative risk, >30ng/mL.
risk of COVID-19 case, 28.4% lower, RR 0.72, p < 0.001, high D levels 1139, low D levels 6668, odds ratio converted to relative risk, >30ng/mL.

Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. For an individual study the most serious outcome may have a smaller number of events and lower statistical signficance, however this provides the strongest evidence for the most serious outcomes when combining the results of many trials.
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