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Vitamin D study #23 of 71
9/25 Analysis of outcomes based on serum levels
Maghbooli et al., PLOS One, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0239799 (Peer Reviewed)
Vitamin D sufficiency, a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D at least 30 ng/mL reduced risk for adverse clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19 infection
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Retrospective 235 hospitalized patients showing a significant association between vitamin D sufficiency and reduction in clinical severity.
For patients over 40, mortality was 9.7% with 25(OH)D levels >30ng/mL, versus 20% for <30ng/mL.
A significant reduction in serum CRP, an inflammatory marker, along with increased lymphocytes percentage suggest that vitamin D sufficiency may help modulate the immune response possibly by reducing the risk for cytokine storm in response to this viral infection.

Maghbooli et al., 9/25/2020, retrospective, Iran, West Asia, peer-reviewed, 11 authors.
risk of death, 51.7% lower, RR 0.48, p = 0.08, high D levels 7 of 72 (9.7%), low D levels 27 of 134 (20.1%), age >40.
risk of ventilation, 31.6% lower, RR 0.68, p = 0.49, high D levels 6 of 77 (7.8%), low D levels 18 of 158 (11.4%).
risk of ICU admission, 32.0% lower, RR 0.68, p = 0.33, high D levels 11 of 77 (14.3%), low D levels 33 of 158 (20.9%), >30nmol/L.

Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. For an individual study the most serious outcome may have a smaller number of events and lower statistical signficance, however this provides the strongest evidence for the most serious outcomes when combining the results of many trials.
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