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Vitamin D study #91 of 109
4/2 Analysis of outcomes based on serum levels
Livingston et al., Int. J. Clinical Practive, doi:10.1111/ijcp.14166 (Peer Reviewed)
Detectable respiratory SARS‐CoV‐2 RNA is associated with low vitamin D levels and high social deprivation
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Retrospective 104 consecutive patients tested for COVID-19 in a hospital in the UK, showing lower vitamin D and higher social deprivation associated with COVID-19 positive results.

Livingston et al., 4/2/2021, retrospective, United Kingdom, Europe, peer-reviewed, 7 authors.
risk of COVID-19 case, 50.9% lower, RR 0.49, p < 0.001, high D levels 16 of 52 (30.8%), low D levels 31 of 52 (59.6%), odds ratio converted to relative risk, >34.4nmol/L.

Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. For an individual study the most serious outcome may have a smaller number of events and lower statistical signficance, however this provides the strongest evidence for the most serious outcomes when combining the results of many trials.
All 109 studies
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