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Vitamin D study #62 of 96
1/11 Analysis of outcomes based on serum levels
Li et al., Aging and Disease, doi:10.14336/AD.2020.1108 (Peer Reviewed)
Metabolic Healthy Obesity, Vitamin D Status, and Risk of COVID-19
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UK Biobank retrospective 353,299 patients showing that vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency are associated with increased COVID-19 risk. This study also analyzes metabolic/obesity phenotypes and the combination with vitamin D status.

Li et al., 1/11/2021, retrospective, United Kingdom, Europe, peer-reviewed, 6 authors.
risk of COVID-19 severe case, 36.2% lower, RR 0.64, p < 0.001, odds ratio converted to relative risk, >25nmol/L.
risk of hospitalization, 28.8% lower, RR 0.71, p < 0.001, odds ratio converted to relative risk, >25nmol/L.
risk of COVID-19 case, 29.5% lower, RR 0.71, p < 0.001, odds ratio converted to relative risk, >25nmol/L.

Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. For an individual study the most serious outcome may have a smaller number of events and lower statistical signficance, however this provides the strongest evidence for the most serious outcomes when combining the results of many trials.
Details of all 96 studies
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