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Vitamin D study #102 of 126   Meta Analysis
5/3 Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis study (treated before exposed to the virus)
Levitus et al., Journal of the Endocrine Society, doi: 10.1210/jendso/bvab048.567 (Peer Reviewed)
The Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Severe COVID-19 Outcomes in Patients With Vitamin D Insufficiency
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Retrospective 129 hospitalized patients with vitamin D levels measured within 90 days prior to admission, showing lower, but not statistically significant, risk of severe cases with vitamin D supplementation among patients with levels <20ng/mL or <12ng/mL. For <30ng/mL, lower (but not statistically significant) risk was seen overall but not for ≥50,000IU (the sample size is not given, it may be extremely small for this case). Only minimal details for <30ng/mL are provided, and no details for <20ng/mL or <12ng/mL are provided. The potential effect of supplementation on the risk of a case severe enough for hospitalization is not included.

Levitus et al., 5/3/2021, retrospective, USA, North America, peer-reviewed, 9 authors, dosage varies.
risk of COVID-19 severe case, 30.8% lower, RR 0.69, p = 0.25, treatment 65, control 64, odds ratio converted to relative risk, ≥1.
risk of COVID-19 severe case, 40.0% lower, RR 0.60, p = 0.15, treatment 65, control 64, odds ratio converted to relative risk, ≥5.
risk of COVID-19 severe case, no change, RR 1.00, p = 0.92, treatment 65, control 64, odds ratio converted to relative risk, ≥50.

Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. For an individual study the most serious outcome may have a smaller number of events and lower statistical signficance, however this provides the strongest evidence for the most serious outcomes when combining the results of many trials.
All 126 studies   Meta Analysis
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