Analysis of 191,779 patients in the US finding COVID-19 positivity strongly and inversely associated with circulating 25(OH)D levels. The relationship persists across latitudes, races/ethnicities, gender, and age ranges.
COVID-19 adjusted odds ratio OR 0.984 per ng/mL increment, p
<0.001). The decrease in positivity rate appeared to plateau as values approached 55 ng/mL.
Patients with high D levels (>55 ng/mL) compared to patients with very low D levels (<20 ng/mL) have a much lower risk of COVID-19 cases, with unadjusted RR 0.47, p
Kaufman et al., 9/17/2020, retrospective, USA, North America, peer-reviewed, median age 54.0, 5 authors.
risk of COVID-19 case, 53.0% lower, RR 0.47, p < 0.001, high D levels 12321, low D levels 39190, >55 ng/mL vs. <20 ng/mL.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules
prioritizing more serious outcomes. For an individual study the most serious
outcome may have a smaller number of events and lower statistical signficance,
however this provides the strongest evidence for the most serious outcomes
when combining the results of many trials.