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Vitamin D study #24 of 96
9/17 Analysis of outcomes based on serum levels
Kaufman et al., PLOS One, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0239252 (Peer Reviewed)
SARS-CoV-2 positivity rates associated with circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels
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Analysis of 191,779 patients in the US finding COVID-19 positivity strongly and inversely associated with circulating 25(OH)D levels. The relationship persists across latitudes, races/ethnicities, gender, and age ranges.
COVID-19 adjusted odds ratio OR 0.984 per ng/mL increment, p<0.001). The decrease in positivity rate appeared to plateau as values approached 55 ng/mL.
Patients with high D levels (>55 ng/mL) compared to patients with very low D levels (<20 ng/mL) have a much lower risk of COVID-19 cases, with unadjusted RR 0.47, p<0.001.

Kaufman et al., 9/17/2020, retrospective, USA, North America, peer-reviewed, median age 54.0, 5 authors.
risk of COVID-19 case, 53.0% lower, RR 0.47, p < 0.001, high D levels 12321, low D levels 39190, >55 ng/mL vs. <20 ng/mL.

Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. For an individual study the most serious outcome may have a smaller number of events and lower statistical signficance, however this provides the strongest evidence for the most serious outcomes when combining the results of many trials.
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