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Vitamin D study #52 of 71
12/31 Analysis of outcomes based on serum levels
Karonova et al., Infectology, doi:10.22625/2072-6732-2020-12-3-21-27 (Peer Reviewed)
Serum 25(oH)D level in patients with CoVID-19
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Retrospective 80 COVID-19 patients showing low vitamin D levels associated with severity and mortality.

Karonova et al., 12/31/2020, retrospective, Russia, Asia, Europe, peer-reviewed, 3 authors.
risk of death, 79.4% lower, RR 0.21, p = 0.07, high D levels 1 of 23 (4.3%), low D levels 12 of 57 (21.1%), odds ratio converted to relative risk, >20ng/ml.
risk of COVID-19 severe case, 71.1% lower, RR 0.29, p = 0.02, high D levels 3 of 23 (13.0%), low D levels 22 of 57 (38.6%), odds ratio converted to relative risk, >20ng/ml.

Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. For an individual study the most serious outcome may have a smaller number of events and lower statistical signficance, however this provides the strongest evidence for the most serious outcomes when combining the results of many trials.
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