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Vitamin D study #58 of 96
12/31 Analysis of outcomes based on serum levels
Karonova et al., Infectology, doi:10.22625/2072-6732-2020-12-3-21-27 (Peer Reviewed)
Serum 25(oH)D level in patients with CoVID-19
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Retrospective 80 COVID-19 patients showing low vitamin D levels associated with severity and mortality.

Karonova et al., 12/31/2020, retrospective, Russia, Asia, Europe, peer-reviewed, 3 authors.
risk of death, 79.4% lower, RR 0.21, p = 0.07, high D levels 1 of 23 (4.3%), low D levels 12 of 57 (21.1%), odds ratio converted to relative risk, >20ng/ml.
risk of COVID-19 severe case, 71.1% lower, RR 0.29, p = 0.02, high D levels 3 of 23 (13.0%), low D levels 22 of 57 (38.6%), odds ratio converted to relative risk, >20ng/ml.

Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. For an individual study the most serious outcome may have a smaller number of events and lower statistical signficance, however this provides the strongest evidence for the most serious outcomes when combining the results of many trials.
Details of all 96 studies
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