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Vitamin D study #27 of 96
10/5 Analysis of outcomes based on serum levels
Karahan et al., J. Nutr. Health Aging, doi:10.1007/s12603-020-1479-0 (Peer Reviewed)
Impact of Serum 25(OH) Vitamin D Level on Mortality in Patients with COVID-19 in Turkey
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Retrospective 149 COVID-19 patients, 69.1% with vitamin D deficiency, showing lower vitamin D levels associated with higher mortality.

Karahan et al., 10/5/2020, retrospective, Turkey, Middle East, peer-reviewed, 2 authors.
risk of death, 82.5% lower, RR 0.17, p < 0.001, high D levels 5 of 46 (10.9%), low D levels 64 of 103 (62.1%), >20nmol/L.

Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. For an individual study the most serious outcome may have a smaller number of events and lower statistical signficance, however this provides the strongest evidence for the most serious outcomes when combining the results of many trials.
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