Rapid and Effective Vitamin D Supplementation May Present Better Clinical Outcomes in COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) Patients by Altering Serum INOS1, IL1B, IFNg, Cathelicidin-LL37, and ICAM1
Retrospective 867 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Turkey, showing worse outcomes with vitamin D deficiency (without statistical significance); followed by a prospective study of 210 patients with vitamin D supplementation for those that were deficient, showing significantly lower mortality compared to the retrospective study without treatment.
risk of death, 65.8% lower, RR 0.34, p = 0.62, high D levels (≥12ng/mL) 1 of 80 (1.2%), low D levels (<12ng/mL) 3 of 82 (3.7%), retrospective study.
risk of ICU admission, 16.9% lower, RR 0.83, p = 1.00, high D levels (≥12ng/mL) 4 of 77 (5.2%), low D levels (<12ng/mL) 5 of 80 (6.2%), retrospective study.
hospital stay >8 days, 21.1% lower, RR 0.79, p = 0.11, high D levels (≥12ng/mL) 40 of 78 (51.3%), low D levels (<12ng/mL) 52 of 80 (65.0%), retrospective study.
Gönen et al., 11/12/2021, retrospective, Turkey, Europe, peer-reviewed, 20 authors, dosage varies.
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Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules
prioritizing more serious outcomes. For an individual study the most serious
outcome may have a smaller number of events and lower statistical significance,
however this provides the strongest evidence for the most serious outcomes
when combining the results of many trials.