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Vitamin D study #77 of 96
2/19 Analysis of outcomes based on serum levels
Gavioli et al., Journal of the American College of Nutrition, doi:10.1080/07315724.2020.1869626 (Peer Reviewed)
An Evaluation of Serum 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D Levels in Patients with COVID-19 in New York City
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Retrospective 437 mostly serious condition (85% hospitalized) patients in New York, showing vitamin D deficiency associated with increased likelihood of oxygen support, but no association with mortality and hospitalization. Multivariate analysis excluded variables with p > 0.2 in univariate analysis. Adjustment for factors correlated with vitamin D may obscure the effect of vitamin D levels.

Gavioli et al., 2/19/2021, retrospective, USA, North America, peer-reviewed, 4 authors.
risk of death, 4.7% higher, RR 1.05, p = 0.83, high D levels 80 of 260 (30.8%), low D levels 52 of 177 (29.4%), >20ng/ml.
risk of death, 44.8% lower, RR 0.55, p < 0.001, high D levels 102 of 376 (27.1%), low D levels 30 of 61 (49.2%), >10ng/ml.
risk of oxygen therapy, 55.2% lower, RR 0.45, p < 0.001, high D levels 127 of 260 (48.8%), low D levels 116 of 177 (65.5%), adjusted per study, >20ng/ml, multivariate.
risk of hospitalization, 3.6% lower, RR 0.96, p = 0.41, high D levels 218 of 260 (83.8%), low D levels 154 of 177 (87.0%), >20ng/ml.

Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. For an individual study the most serious outcome may have a smaller number of events and lower statistical signficance, however this provides the strongest evidence for the most serious outcomes when combining the results of many trials.
Details of all 96 studies
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