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Home   COVID-19 treatment studies for Vitamin D  COVID-19 treatment studies for Vitamin D  C19 studies: Vitamin D  Vitamin D   Select treatmentSelect treatmentTreatmentsTreatments
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0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2+ Mortality 49% Improvement Relative Risk Mortality (b) 55% c19vitamind.com/efird.html Favors vitamin D Favors control
31 December 2021 - Early treatment study
The Interaction of Vitamin D and Corticosteroids: A Mortality Analysis of 26,508 Veterans Who Tested Positive for SARS-CoV-2
Efird et al., International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, doi:10.3390/ijerph19010447 (Peer Reviewed)
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Retrospective 26,508 COVID+ veterans in USA, showing lower mortality with vitamin D use after testing positive (defined as being administered ≥7 days or half of the survival time within 2 weeks after testing), with statistical significance for hospitalized patients.
risk of death, 48.9% lower, RR 0.51, p = 0.10, treatment 11 of 544 (2.0%), control 413 of 15,794 (2.6%), NNT 169, adjusted per study, non-hospitalized patients, vitamin D + no corticosteroids vs. no vitamin D + no corticosteroids.
risk of death, 54.5% lower, RR 0.45, p = 0.02, treatment 11 of 192 (5.7%), control 553 of 4,340 (12.7%), NNT 14, adjusted per study, hospitalized patients, vitamin D + no corticosteroids vs. no vitamin D + no corticosteroids.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes.
Efird et al., 12/31/2021, retrospective, USA, North America, peer-reviewed, 10 authors, study period 1 March, 2020 - 10 September, 2020, dosage varies.
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