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Vitamin D study #108 of 109
6/7 Analysis of outcomes based on serum levels
Dror et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.06.04.21258358 (Preprint)
Pre-infection 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels and association with severity of COVID-19 illness
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Retrospective 253 hospitalized patients in Israel showing higher mortality and higher risk of severe cases with vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D levels were measured 14 to 730 days before the COVID-19 test. Adjusted results are only provided for severity.

Dror et al., 6/7/2021, retrospective, Israel, Middle East, preprint, 18 authors.
risk of severe or critical case, 85.1% lower, RR 0.15, p < 0.001, high D levels 109 of 120 (90.8%), low D levels 76 of 133 (57.1%), odds ratio converted to relative risk, >40ng/mL vs. <20ng/mL, multivariate logistic regression.

Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. For an individual study the most serious outcome may have a smaller number of events and lower statistical signficance, however this provides the strongest evidence for the most serious outcomes when combining the results of many trials.
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