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Vitamin D study #107 of 109
6/6 Analysis of outcomes based on serum levels
Diaz-Curiel, Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2021.105928 (Peer Reviewed)
The relationship between 25(OH) vitamin D levels and COVID-19 onset and disease course in Spanish patients
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Retrospective 1,549 patients in Spain showing that the frequency of vitamin D deficiency was higher in admitted patients compared to the overall Spanish population, and that vitamin D deficiency was associated with increased risk of ICU admission amongst admitted patients. Adjusted vitamin D levels were lower in deceased patients, but statistical significance was not reached (authors provide only average levels, they do not provide mortality analysis based on deficiency).

Diaz-Curiel et al., 6/6/2021, retrospective, Spain, Europe, peer-reviewed, 8 authors.
risk of ICU admission, 73.2% lower, RR 0.27, p = 0.02, high D levels 3 of 214 (1.4%), low D levels 91 of 1017 (8.9%), odds ratio converted to relative risk, >30ng/mL vs. <20ng/mL.

Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. For an individual study the most serious outcome may have a smaller number of events and lower statistical signficance, however this provides the strongest evidence for the most serious outcomes when combining the results of many trials.
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