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Vitamin D study #71 of 96
1/29 Analysis of outcomes based on serum levels
Demir et al., Journal of Medical Virology, doi:10.1002/jmv.26832 (Peer Reviewed)
Vitamin D deficiency is associated with COVID‐19 positivity and the severity of the disease
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Retrospective cohort study of 487 patients finding that lower vitamin D levels is associated with more severe cases as measured by affected lung segments and increased hospitalization time for COVID-19 positive patients, and that lower vitamin D levels increases COVID-19 PCR+ cases.

Demir et al., 1/29/2021, retrospective, Turkey, Middle East, peer-reviewed, 3 authors.
risk of COVID-19 severe case, 89.3% lower, RR 0.11, p < 0.001, high D levels 13, low D levels 99, ratio of the mean number of affected lung segments, >30ng/ml vs. <=10ng/mL.
hospitalization time, 87.1% lower, relative time 0.13, p < 0.001, high D levels 13, low D levels 99, >30ng/ml vs. <=10ng/mL.
risk of COVID-19 case, 24.2% lower, RR 0.76, p = 0.18, high D levels 13 of 31 (41.9%), low D levels 99 of 179 (55.3%), >30ng/ml vs. <=10ng/mL.

Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. For an individual study the most serious outcome may have a smaller number of events and lower statistical signficance, however this provides the strongest evidence for the most serious outcomes when combining the results of many trials.
Details of all 96 studies
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