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Vitamin D meta
5/10 Early, Late, PrEP, PEP
Covid Analysis (Preprint) (meta analysis)
Vitamin D for COVID-19: real-time meta analysis of 75 studies
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• 96% of 23 vitamin D treatment studies report positive effects (13 statistically significant in isolation).
• Random effects meta-analysis with pooled effects using the most serious outcome reported shows 78% and 53% improvement for early treatment and for all studies (RR 0.22 [0.12-0.43] and 0.47 [0.36-0.60]). Results are similar after restriction to 17 peer-reviewed studies: 81% and 55% (RR 0.19 [0.06-0.61] and 0.45 [0.33-0.61]).
Heterogeneity arises from many factors including treatment delay, patient population, the effect measured, variants, the form of vitamin D used, and treatment regimens. The consistency of positive results across a wide variety of cases is remarkable. The only treatment study reporting a negative effect is a very late stage cholecalciferol study.
Sufficiency studies show a strong association between vitamin D sufficiency and outcomes. Meta analysis of the 52 studies with pooled effects using the most serious outcome reported shows 53% improvement (RR 0.47 [0.40-0.55]).
• While many treatments have some level of efficacy, they do not replace vaccines and other measures to avoid infection. Only 4% of vitamin D treatment studies show zero events in the treatment arm. Multiple approaches are required to protect everyone from all existing and future variants.
• All data to reproduce this paper and the sources are in the appendix.
ImprovementStudies AuthorsPatients
Treatment RCTs 50% [14‑71%] 5 56 1,370
Treatment studies 53% [40‑64%] 23 236 23,046
Calcifediol/calcitriol treatment 62% [43‑75%] 4 43 7,095
Treatment mortality 63% [45‑75%] 14 127 8,818
Sufficiency studies 53% [45‑60%] 52 419 12,067

Details of all 96 studies
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