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Vitamin D meta   Meta Analysis
8/2 Early, Late, PrEP, PEP
Covid Analysis (Preprint) (meta analysis)
Vitamin D for COVID-19: real-time meta analysis of 97 studies
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• 91% of 33 vitamin D treatment studies report positive effects (17 statistically significant in isolation).
• Random effects meta-analysis with pooled effects using the most serious outcome reported shows 80% and 42% improvement for early treatment and for all studies (RR 0.20 [0.10-0.37] and 0.58 [0.50-0.67]). Results are similar after restriction to 29 peer-reviewed studies: 83% and 44% (RR 0.17 [0.07-0.42] and 0.56 [0.47-0.67]), and for the 19 mortality results: 78% and 55% (RR 0.22 [0.12-0.43] and 0.45 [0.32-0.64]).
• Late stage treatment with calcifediol/calcitriol shows greater improvement compared to cholecalciferol: 80% versus 39% (RR 0.20 [0.13-0.31] and 0.61 [0.45-0.83]).
Heterogeneity arises from many factors including treatment delay, patient population, the effect measured, variants, the form of vitamin D used, and treatment regimens. The consistency of positive results across a wide variety of cases is remarkable.
Sufficiency studies show a strong association between vitamin D sufficiency and outcomes. Meta analysis of the 64 studies with pooled effects using the most serious outcome reported shows 57% improvement (RR 0.43 [0.36-0.52]).
• While many treatments have some level of efficacy, they do not replace vaccines and other measures to avoid infection. Only 9% of vitamin D treatment studies show zero events in the treatment arm.
• Elimination of COVID-19 is a race against viral evolution. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used. Not doing so increases the risk of COVID-19 becoming endemic; and increases mortality, morbidity, and collateral damage.
• All data to reproduce this paper and the sources are in the appendix.
ImprovementStudies AuthorsPatients
Treatment RCTs 45% [-17‑74%] 5 53 482
Treatment studies 42% [33‑50%] 33 325 46,860
Cholecalciferol treatment 35% [25‑44%] 27 256 39,320
Calcifediol/calcitriol treatment 63% [24‑82%] 6 69 7,540
Treatment mortality 55% [36‑68%] 19 175 9,760
Sufficiency studies 57% [48‑64%] 64 524 34,464


All 126 studies   Meta Analysis
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and treatments are both extremely valuable and complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used. Elimination of COVID-19 is a race against viral evolution. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. Denying the efficacy of any method increases the risk of COVID-19 becoming endemic; and increases mortality, morbidity, and collateral damage. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. Treatment protocols for physicians are available from the FLCCC.
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