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Vitamin D study #63 of 96
1/12 Analysis of outcomes based on serum levels
Bennouar et al., Journal of the American College of Nutrition, doi:10.1080/07315724.2020.1856013 (Peer Reviewed)
Vitamin D Deficiency and Low Serum Calcium as Predictors of Poor Prognosis in Patients with Severe COVID-19
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Prospective study of 120 severe cases of COVID-19 in Algeria finding low vitamin D and low calcium both associated with increased mortality.

Bennouar et al., 1/12/2021, prospective, Algeria, Africa, peer-reviewed, 4 authors.
risk of death, 85.5% lower, RR 0.14, p = 0.002, high D levels 4 of 30 (13.3%), low D levels 15 of 32 (46.9%), adjusted per study, >30μg/l vs. <10μg/l, proportional Cox regression.
risk of death, 63.0% lower, RR 0.37, p = 0.10, high D levels 4 of 30 (13.3%), low D levels 14 of 35 (40.0%), adjusted per study, >30μg/l vs. 10-19μg/l, proportional Cox regression.
risk of death, 23.1% lower, RR 0.77, p = 0.73, high D levels 4 of 30 (13.3%), low D levels 4 of 23 (17.4%), adjusted per study, >30μg/l vs. 20-29μg/l, proportional Cox regression.

Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. For an individual study the most serious outcome may have a smaller number of events and lower statistical signficance, however this provides the strongest evidence for the most serious outcomes when combining the results of many trials.
Details of all 96 studies
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