Retrospective 33 COVID-19 hospitalized patients in North Macedonia, showing significantly lower vitamin D levels for severe vs. moderate cases. Oxidative stress was also higher for vitamin D insufficient patients.
risk of death, 40.7% lower, RR 0.59, p = 0.68, high D levels (≥30ng/mL) 2 of 9 (22.2%), low D levels (<30ng/mL) 9 of 24 (37.5%).
risk of severe case, 59.0% lower, RR 0.41, p = 0.13, high D levels (≥30ng/mL) 2 of 9 (22.2%), low D levels (<30ng/mL) 13 of 24 (54.2%).
Atanasovska et al., 11/2/2021, retrospective, North Macedonia, Europe, peer-reviewed, 8 authors.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules
prioritizing more serious outcomes. For an individual study the most serious
outcome may have a smaller number of events and lower statistical significance,
however this provides the strongest evidence for the most serious outcomes
when combining the results of many trials.