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Home   COVID-19 treatment studies for Vitamin D  COVID-19 treatment studies for Vitamin D  C19 studies: Vitamin D  Vitamin D   Select treatmentSelect treatmentTreatmentsTreatments
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Database of all vitamin D COVID-19 studies. Sufficiency studies analyze outcomes based on vitamin D levels, confounding factors may be significant. Treatment studies directly analyze the effect of vitamin D treatment. vitamind4all.org provides treatment recommendations. Submit updates/corrections.
 
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Dec 5
Early, Late, PrEP, PEP Covid Analysis (Preprint) (meta analysis)
meta-analysis v116
Vitamin D for COVID-19: real-time meta analysis of 145 studies
Details   • 85% of 53 vitamin D treatment studies report positive effects. 27 studies show statistically significant improvements in isolation (21 for the most serious outcome). • Random effects meta-analysis with pooled effects using the most ser..
Nov 30
Levels Fatemi et al., Acute and Critical Care, doi:10.4266/acc.2021.00605 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓42.0%, p=0.07
Association of vitamin D deficiency with COVID-19 severity and mortality in Iranian people: a prospective observational study
Details   Prospective study of 248 hospitalized COVID+ patients in Iran with vitamin D levels measured in the previous year and again at admission, showing vitamin D status associated with severity and mortality.
Nov 30
Levels Kaur et al., Indian Journal of Clinical Practice, 32:6 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓89.8%, p<0.0001
Correlation of Vitamin D Levels with COVID-19 Severity and Outcome
Details   Prospective study of 81 hospitalized COVID+ patients in India, showing low vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 severity and mortality.
Nov 24
Levels Jenei et al., Clinical Nutrition ESPEN, doi:10.1016/j.clnesp.2021.11.025 (Peer Reviewed) COVID-19 mortality is associated with low Vitamin D levels in patients with risk factors and/or advanced age
Details   Retrospective 257 hospitalized patients in Hungary, showing mortality associated with lower vitamin D levels for all patients, for patients >60, and for age-matched patients with risk factors or age >60. The non-age-matched analyses are c..
Nov 23
Levels Ahmed et al., BioMed Research International, doi:10.1155/2021/1676914 (Peer Reviewed) Factors Affecting the Incidence, Progression, and Severity of COVID-19 in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Details   Retrospective type 1 diabetes patients in Saudi Arabia showing that mean vitamin D levels were significantly lower in type 1 diabetes patients with COVID-19 than in type 1 diabetes patients without COVID-19, or in a control group of patie..
Nov 21
Levels Asgari et al., Acta Medica Iranica, doi:10.18502/acta.v59i11.7779 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓72.5%, p=0.03
Vitamin D Insufficiency in Disease Severity and Prognosis of the Patients With SARS Corona Virus-2 Infection
Details   Retrospective 98 moderate/severe hospitalized COVID-19+ patients in Iran, showing significantly increased risk of mortality and severity with vitamin D deficiency. IR.AJAUMS.REC.1399.060.
Nov 12
Levels Sacristán et al., Transplantation Proceedings, doi:10.1016/j.transproceed.2021.08.060 (Peer Reviewed) Risk of severe COVID-19 infection in kidney transplant recipients
Details   Retrospective 63 COVID+ kidney transplant recipients, showing significantly lower vitamin D levels before infection in patients requiring ICU admission.
Nov 12
Levels Gönen et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13114047 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓65.8%, p=0.62
Rapid and Effective Vitamin D Supplementation May Present Better Clinical Outcomes in COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) Patients by Altering Serum INOS1, IL1B, IFNg, Cathelicidin-LL37, and ICAM1
Details   Retrospective 867 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Turkey, showing worse outcomes with vitamin D deficiency (without statistical significance); followed by a prospective study of 210 patients with vitamin D supplementation for those that..
Nov 10
Levels Asghar et al., Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., doi:10.4269/ajtmh.21-0577 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓53.1%, p=0.05
Evaluation of Vitamin-D Status and Its Association with Clinical Outcomes Among COVID-19 Patients in Pakistan
Details   Retrospective 91 hospitalized patients in Pakistan, showing vitamin D deficiency associated with mortality in multivariate Cox regression.
Nov 3
Levels Gallelli et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13113932 (Peer Reviewed) Vitamin D Serum Levels in Subjects Tested for SARS-CoV-2: What Are the Differences among Acute, Healed, and Negative COVID-19 Patients? A Multicenter Real-Practice Study
Details   Analysis of 117 patients in Italy, showing COVID-19 patients had significantly lower vitamin D levels than control patients.
Nov 2
Levels Atanasovska et al., Redox Report, doi:10.1080/13510002.2021.1999126 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓40.7%, p=0.68
Vitamin D levels and oxidative stress markers in patients hospitalized with COVID-19
Details   Retrospective 33 COVID-19 hospitalized patients in North Macedonia, showing significantly lower vitamin D levels for severe vs. moderate cases. Oxidative stress was also higher for vitamin D insufficient patients.
Oct 25
Late Leal et al., SSRN, doi:10.2139/ssrn.3949424 (Preprint)
death, ↓85.7%, p=0.03
Effect of a Nutritional Support System to Increase Survival and Reduce Mortality in Patients with COVID-19 in Stage III and Comorbidities: A Blinded Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial
Details   80 patient RCT with 40 patients treated with a comprehensive regimen of nutritional support, showing significantly lower mortality with treatment. Treatment contained cholecalciferol, vitamin C, zinc, spirulina maxima, folic acid, glutam..
Oct 22
Levels Hurst et al., BMJ Open, doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2021-055435 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓68.4%, p=0.005
Vitamin D insufficiency in COVID-19 and influenza A, and critical illness survivors: a cross-sectional study
Details   Analysis of 259 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in the UK, showing a majority of patients had vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency, which was associated with poor outcomes. Both free and total 25(OH)D were analyzed with consistent results. I..
Oct 20
Levels Al-Anouti et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13113680 (Peer Reviewed)
severe case, ↓68.1%, p=0.0007
Associations between Genetic Variants in the Vitamin D Metabolism Pathway and Severity of COVID-19 among UAE Residents
Details   Retrospective 646 COVID-19 patients in the UAE, showing significant associations between genetic determinants of vitamin D metabolism and COVID-19 severity, and an association with vitamin D deficiency and COVID-19 severity. Patients in t..
Oct 15
Levels Ramirez-Sandoval et al., Archives of Medical Research, doi:10.1016/j.arcmed.2021.09.006 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓31.5%, p<0.0001
Very Low Vitamin D Levels are a Strong Independent Predictor of Mortality in Hospitalized Patients with Severe COVID-19
Details   Retrospective 2,908 hospitalized patients in Mexico with vitamin D levels measured on admission, showing significantly lower mortality for patients without vitamin D deficiency.
Oct 13
Late Maghbooli et al., Endocrine Practice, doi:10.1016/j.eprac.2021.09.016 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓40.0%, p=0.72
Treatment with 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (calcifediol) is associated with a reduction in the blood neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio marker of disease severity in patients hospitalized with COVID-19: a pilot, multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled double blind clinical trial
Details   RCT 106 hospitalized patients with vitamin D levels <30ng/ml in Iran, 53 treated with calcifediol, showing that treatment was able to correct vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency, resulting in improved immune system function. Hospitalizatio..
Oct 12
Levels Afaghi et al., The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine, doi:10.1620/tjem.255.127 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓55.0%, p=0.002
Prevalence and Clinical Outcomes of Vitamin D Deficiency in COVID-19 Hospitalized Patients: A Retrospective Single-Center Analysis
Details   Retrospective 646 COVID-19+ hospitalized patients in Iran, showing higher mortality with vitamin D deficiency.
Oct 12
PrEP, Early Worcel et al., Annals of Palliative Medicine, doi:10.21037/apm-21-1707 (Peer Reviewed) Low mortality from COVID-19 at a nursing facility in France following a combined preventive and active treatment protocol
Details   Report on the relatively low mortality and relatively mild COVID-19 symptoms at a French nursing facility that has adopted several treatments including vitamin D, zinc, anticoagulants, corticosteroids, and a multivitamin.
Oct 9
Late Caballero-García et al., Medicina, doi:10.3390/medicina57101079 (Peer Reviewed) Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Muscle Status in Old Patients Recovering from COVID-19 Infection
Details   Small RCT with 30 patients examining the effect of vitamin D supplementation on muscle status in elderly recovering COVID-19 patients, showing serum creatine kinase levels returned to optimal values, however there was no significant diffe..
Oct 5
Levels Mukherjee et al., FEBS Open Bio, doi:10.1002/2211-5463.13309 (Peer Reviewed) Seasonal UV exposure and vitamin D: Association with the dynamics of COVID-19 transmission in Europe
Details   Analysis of UV and temperature levels in 26 European countries, showing that low temperature, UV index, and cloud-free vitamin D UV dose levels are negatively correlated with COVID-19 prevalence. Authors suggest that low UV exposure can a..
Oct 2
Levels Abdollahzadeh et al., Infection, Genetics and Evolution, doi:10.1016/j.meegid.2021.105098 (Peer Reviewed) Association of Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and clinical/severe outcomes of COVID-19 patients
Details   Analysis of 500 hospitalized patients in Iran, showing associations between specific vitamin D receceptor gene polymorphisms and COVID-19 outcomes.
Sep 27
Late Yildiz et al., Bratislava Medical Journal, doi:10.4149/BLL_2021_119 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓80.9%, p=0.04
The prognostic significance of vitamin D deficiency in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia
Details   Retrospective 207 hospitalized patients in Turkey, 37 with vitamin D levels <30ng/ml treated with a 300,000IU vitamin D, showing lower mortality with treatment.
Sep 25
Meta Borsche et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13103596 (preprint 9/25/2021) (Peer Reviewed) (meta analysis)
meta-analysis
COVID-19 Mortality Risk Correlates Inversely with Vitamin D3 Status, and a Mortality Rate Close to Zero Could Theoretically Be Achieved at 50 ng/mL 25(OH)D3: Results of a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Details   Meta analysis of 8 studies with vitamin D levels measured pre-infection or on the day of hospital admission, showing a correlation between the levels and mortality. Authors recommend combining vaccination with vitamin D supplementation to..
Sep 24
PrEPPEP Arroyo-Díaz et al., Frontiers in Public Health, doi:10.3389/fpubh.2021.758347 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↑12.4%, p=0.59
Previous Vitamin D Supplementation and Morbidity and Mortality Outcomes in People Hospitalised for COVID19: A Cross-Sectional Study
Details   Retrospective 1,267 hospitalized patients in Spain, 189 on vitamin D supplementation before admission, showing lower ICU admission with supplementation, and no statistically significant difference for mortality or ventilation.
Sep 22
Review Castle et al., Journal of Inflammation Research, doi:10.2147/JIR.S323356 (Review) (Peer Reviewed)
review
Implications for Systemic Approaches to COVID-19: Effect Sizes of Remdesivir, Tocilizumab, Melatonin, Vitamin D3, and Meditation
Details   Review of the effects of COVID-19 on inflammatory markers, and the effects on those markers of standard treatments vs. vitamin D, melatonin, and meditation, showing comparable or superior effects with the non-standard treatments. The stan..
Sep 22
Levels Marino-Ramirez et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.09.20.21263865 (Preprint) Vitamin D and socioeconomic deprivation mediate COVID-19 ethnic health disparities
Details   UK Biobank retrospective showing that vitamin supplements, including vitamin D, mediate the Asian disparity in COVID-19 susceptibility, and vitamin D levels mediate Asian and Black COVID-19 severity disparities. Authors conclude that the ..
Sep 19
Levels Derakhshanian et al., Food Science & Nutrition, doi:10.1002/fsn3.2591 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓44.8%, p=0.05
The predictive power of serum vitamin D for poor outcomes in COVID-19 patients
Details   Retrospective 290 hospitalized patients in Iran, showing higher mortality with vitamin D deficiency.
Sep 14
Levels Padhi et al., International Immunopharmacology, doi:10.1016/j.intimp.2020.107001 (Peer Reviewed) Lower levels of vitamin D are associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection and mortality in the Indian population: An observational study
Details   Analysis of vitamin D levels and COVID-19 in Indian states and union territories, showing an inverse correlation of vitamin D levels with SARS-CoV-2 cases and mortality.
Sep 9
In Vitro Pickard et al., PLOS Pathogens, doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1009840 (Peer Reviewed) (In Vitro)
in vitro
Discovery of re-purposed drugs that slow SARS-CoV-2 replication in human cells
Details   In Vitro studying identifying 35 compounds that inhibit SARS-CoV-2 in Vero cells and hepatocytes when treated prior to infection, and several compounds that slow replication when treated after infection: vitamin D, amodiaquine, atovaquone..
Sep 8
Late Elamir et al., Bone, doi:10.1016/j.bone.2021.116175 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓85.7%, p=0.23
A Randomized Pilot Study Using Calcitriol in Hospitalized Patients
Details   RCT 50 hospitalized patients in the USA, 25 treated with calcitriol, showing significantly improved oxygenation with treatment. Mortality, intubation, ICU admission, and hospitalization time also favored treatment, while not reaching stat..
Sep 5
PrEPPEP Lázaro et al., Endocrine Abstracts, doi:10.1530/endoabs.70.EP552 (Preprint)
cases, ↓26.8%, p=1.00
Vitamin D deficit in type 2 diabetes patients during COVID-19 lockdown with and without supplementation
Details   Analysis of 239 consecutive diabetic patients, 97 taking vitamin D supplements, showing significantly higher vitamin D levels in supplemented patients. There was no statistically significant difference in cases based on supplementation, w..
Sep 1
PrEPPEP Bagheri et al., Journal of Family & Reproductive Health, doi:10.18502/jfrh.v14i3.4668 (Peer Reviewed)
progression, ↓70.9%, p=0.02
Supplement Usage Pattern in a Group of COVID- 19 Patients in Tehran
Details   Retrospective 510 patients in Iran, showing lower risk of severity with vitamin D (statistically significant) and zinc (not statistically significant) supplementation. IR.TUMS.VCR.REC.1398.1063.
Sep 1
Late Soliman et al., Proceedings of Singapore Healthcare, doi:10.1177/20101058211041405 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓63.4%, p=0.21
Impact of Vitamin D Therapy on the Progress COVID-19: Six Weeks Follow-Up Study of Vitamin D Deficient Elderly Diabetes Patients
Details   Small RCT with 56 eldery diabetes patients hospitalized in Egypt, 40 treated with cholecalciferol, not showing significant differences.
Aug 31
Meta Ben-Eltriki et al., Journal of the American College of Nutrition, doi:10.1080/07315724.2021.1951891 (Peer Reviewed) (meta analysis)
meta-analysis
Association between Vitamin D Status and Risk of Developing Severe COVID-19 Infection: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies
Details   Meta analysis of 24 observational studies with 3,637 participants, showing low vitamin D status associated with a higher risk of death and a higher risk of developing severe COVID-19 pneumonia.
Aug 29
Levels Karonova et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13093021 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓77.8%, p=0.006
Low 25(OH)D Level Is Associated with Severe Course and Poor Prognosis in COVID-19
Details   Retrospective 161 hospitalized patients in Russia, showing COVID-19 severity and mortality associated with vitamin D deficiency. Patients in this study may overlap with those in an earlier smaller study from some of the same authors.
Aug 28
Late Assiri et al., Journal of Infection and Public Health, doi:10.1016/j.jiph.2021.08.030 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↑66.5%, p=0.60
COVID-19 related treatment and outcomes among COVID-19 ICU patients: A retrospective cohort study
Details   Retrospective 118 ICU patients in Saudi Arabia showing no significant differences in unadjusted results with zinc, vitamin D, and favipiravir treatment.
Aug 27
Levels Pecina et al., Journal of Primary Care & Community Health, doi:10.1177/21501327211041206 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓35.9%, p=0.74
Vitamin D Status and Severe COVID-19 Disease Outcomes in Hospitalized Patients
Details   Retrospective 92 hospitalized patients not showing significant differences in outcomes based on vitamin D status or supplementation.
Aug 26
PrEPPEP Golabi et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13103368 (preprint 8/26/2021) (Peer Reviewed)
cases, ↑25.4%, p=0.56
The Association between Vitamin D and Zinc Status and the Progression of Clinical Symptoms among Outpatients Infected with SARS-CoV-2 and Potentially Non-Infected Participants: A Cross-Sectional Study
Details   Analysis of vitamin D and zinc levels in 53 PCR+ outpatients and 53 matched controls, showing lower zinc levels in COVID-19 patients, and increased risk of cases and symptoms with vitamin D deficiency. There was no significant difference ..
Aug 26
Levels Golabi et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13103368 (preprint 8/26/2021) (Peer Reviewed)
symp., ↓90.0%, p<0.0001
The Association between Vitamin D and Zinc Status and the Progression of Clinical Symptoms among Outpatients Infected with SARS-CoV-2 and Potentially Non-Infected Participants: A Cross-Sectional Study
Details   Analysis of vitamin D and zinc levels in 53 PCR+ outpatients and 53 matched controls, showing lower zinc levels in COVID-19 patients, and increased risk of cases and symptoms with vitamin D deficiency. There was no significant difference ..
Aug 25
Meta Varikasuvu (Preprint) (meta analysis)
meta-analysis
COVID-19 and Vitamin D (Co-VIVID Study): a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Details   Meta analysis of 6 vitamin D treatment RCTs, showing statistically significant improvements for pooled outcomes and PCR positivity, and positive but not statistically significant improvements for mortality, mechanical ventilation, ICU adm..
Aug 20
In Silico Song et al., Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics, doi:10.1080/07391102.2021.1964601 (Peer Reviewed) Vitamin D3 and its hydroxyderivatives as promising drugs against COVID-19: a computational study
Details   In Silico study suggesting that vitamin D3 and its biologically active hydroxyderivatives can serve as an TMPRSS2 inhibitor, and inhibit ACE2 binding with the SARS-CoV-2 RBD.
Aug 18
Levels Shakeri et al., Journal of Medical Virology, doi:10.1002/jmv.27277 (Peer Reviewed) Evaluation of the relationship between serum levels of zinc, vitamin B12, vitamin D, and clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19
Details   Retrospective 293 hospitalized patients in Iran showing lower levels of zinc, vitamin B12, and vitamin D in patients that died, with statistical significance reached only for zinc.
Aug 12
Levels di Filippo et al, The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, doi:10.1210/clinem/dgab599 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓10.7%, p=1.00
Vitamin D levels associate with blood glucose and BMI in COVID-19 patients predicting disease severity
Details   Retrospective 88 patients in Italy, showing vitamin D deficiency associated with severe cases, blood glucose, and BMI.
Aug 11
Levels Sinaci et al., The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2021.105964 (Peer Reviewed)
m/s case, ↓79.5%, p<0.0001
Impact of vitamin D on the course of COVID-19 during pregnancy: A case control study
Details   Retrospective 159 COVID-19+ pregnant women in Turkey and 332 healthy pregnant controls, showing significantly lower vitamin D levels in COVID-19+ patients. 23% of COVID-19 patients where on vitamin D supplementation, while none of the 7 s..
Aug 10
Levels Alpcan et al., Epidemiology & Infection, doi:10.1017/S0950268821001825 (Peer Reviewed)
cases, ↓73.0%, p=0.0005
Vitamin D levels in children with COVID-19: a report from Turkey
Details   Retrospective 75 COVID-19 hospitalized pediatric patients in Turkey and 80 healthy controls, showing significantly lower vitamin D levels in COVID-19 patients.
Aug 5
Levels Eden et al., BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health, doi:10.1136/bmjnph-2021-000270 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓63.9%, p=0.10
Nutritional parameters and outcomes in patients admitted to intensive care with COVID-19: a retrospective single-centre service evaluation
Details   Retrospective 72 ICU patients in the UK, showing higher mortality with vitamin D deficiency, not reaching statistical significance.
Aug 5
Levels Ribeiro et al., Clinica Chimica Acta, doi:10.1016/j.cca.2021.08.003 (Peer Reviewed)
cases, ↓50.5%, p=0.01
Previous vitamin D status and total cholesterol are associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection
Details   Retrospective 1,634 patients tested for SARS-CoV-2 in Brazil, showing vitamin D levels <30ng/mL associated with greater odds of a positive SARS-CoV-2 test in patients older than 49 years.
Aug 5
Levels Nimavat et al., Annals of Medicine and Surgery, doi:10.1016/j.amsu.2021.102661 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓50.4%, p=0.17
Vitamin D deficiency and COVID-19: A case-control study at a tertiary care hospital in India
Details   Case control study with 156 PCR+ cases in India and 204 controls, showing more frequent vitamin D deficiency in COVID-19 patients, and an association between lower vitamin D levels and COVID-19 severity.
Aug 4
PrEPPEP Mohseni et al., Nutrition & Food Science, doi:10.1108/NFS-11-2020-0421 (Peer Reviewed)
cases, ↓12.4%, p=0.09
Do body mass index (BMI) and history of nutritional supplementation play a role in the severity of COVID-19? A retrospective study
Details   Retrospective 603 patients in Iran, 192 taking vitamin D supplements, showing no significant difference in COVID-19 cases in unadjusted results. IR.SHOUSHTAR.REC.1399.015.
Jul 30
Levels Matin et al., Archives of Microbiology, doi:10.1007/s00203-021-02482-5 (Peer Reviewed)
cases, ↓66.1%, p<0.0001
The sufficient vitamin D and albumin level have a protective effect on COVID-19 infection
Details   Case control study with 191 COVID-19 patients and 203 healthy controls in Iran, showing an association between vitamin D deficiency and COVID-19 infection and severity. 84.4% of COVID-19 patients had vitamin D deficiency.
Jul 29
Levels Al-Salman et al., Nutrition & Food Science, doi:10.1108/NFS-05-2021-0143 (Peer Reviewed)
ICU, ↓44.4%, p=0.03
In COVID-19 patients, low 25-hydroxyvitamin D level in serum is associated with longer viral clearance time and higher risk of intensive care unit admission
Details   Retrospective 450 hospitalized patients in Bahrain, showing increased risk of ICU admission and slower viral clearance with vitamin D deficiency.
Jul 29
Meta Ghasemian et al., The International Journal of Clinical Practice, doi:10.1111/ijcp.14675 (Peer Reviewed) (meta analysis)
meta-analysis
The Role of Vitamin D in the Age of COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Details   Systematic review and meta analysis of 23 studies, finding significantly higher risk of COVID-19 cases and severity with vitamin D deficiency. Mortality risk was higher with deficiency, but not reaching statistical significance, OR 1.6 [0..
Jul 29
Early, PrEP Annweiler et al., The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, doi:0.1016/j.jsbmb.2021.105958 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓64.2%, p=0.002
Vitamin D supplementation prior to or during COVID-19 associated with better 3-month survival in geriatric patients: Extension phase of the GERIA-COVID study
Details   Report on extended results from the GERIA-COVID study, showing significantly lower mortality at 3 months with vitamin D treatment. Results combine prophylaxis and early treatment.
Jul 27
In Silico Qayyum et al., Endocrinology and Metabolism, doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00174.2021 (Peer Reviewed) Vitamin D and lumisterol novel metabolites can inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication machinery enzymes
Details   In Silico analysis showing that vitamin D and lumisterol metabolites may inhibit SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and RdRP.
Jul 27
Levels Cozier et al., PLoS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0255132 (Peer Reviewed)
cases, ↓38.6%, p=0.04
Lower serum 25(OH)D levels associated with higher risk of COVID-19 infection in U.S. Black women
Details   Prospective study of vitamin D levels and COVID-19 infection in the Black Women's Health Study, showing higher risk of infection for lower vitamin D levels. Vitamin D levels were from 3-7 years before infection. Levels at the time of infe..
Jul 27
PrEPPEP Israel et al., Epidemiology and Global Health Microbiology and Infectious Disease, doi:10.7554/eLife.68165 (Peer Reviewed)
hosp., ↓9.1%, p=0.003
Identification of drugs associated with reduced severity of COVID-19: A case-control study in a large population
Details   Case control study examining medication usage with a healthcare database in Israel, showing lower risk of hospitalization with vitamin D (defined as being picked up within 35 days prior to PCR+). Other patients may have acquired vitamin D..
Jul 26
PrEPPEP Jimenez et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13082559 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓50.1%, p=0.02
Mortality in Hemodialysis Patients with COVID-19, the Effect of Paricalcitol or Calcimimetics
Details   Retrospective 288 hemodialysis patients in Spain, 137 with existing vitamin D treatments (94 with paricalcitol), showing lower mortality with treatment. There was no significant difference in outcomes based on serum levels, however author..
Jul 23
Late Güven et al, European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, doi:10.1038/s41430-021-00984-5 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓24.8%, p=0.32
The effect of high-dose parenteral vitamin D3 on COVID-19-related inhospital mortality in critical COVID-19 patients during intensive care unit admission: an observational cohort study
Details   Retrospective 175 ICU patients, 113 treated with a single dose of 300,000IU intramuscular cholecalciferol, showing lower mortality with treatment, but not reaching statistical significance. Calcifediol or calcitriol, which avoids several ..
Jul 17
PrEPPEP Oristrell et al., Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, doi:10.1007/s40618-021-01639-9 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↑1.0%, p=0.91
Vitamin D supplementation and COVID-19 risk: a population-based, cohort study
Details   Retrospective study of cholecalciferol and calcitriol supplementation in Catalonia showing a small but significant lower risk of cases with cholecalciferol, but no significant difference for mortality, or for calcitriol supplementation. S..
Jul 9
Early Rabail et al., Food Science & Nutrition, doi:10.1002/fsn3.2458 (Peer Reviewed) Nutritional and lifestyle changes required for minimizing the recovery period in home quarantined COVID-19 patients of Punjab, Pakistan
Details   Survey of 80 recovered COVID-19 patients in Pakistan, showing faster recovery with vitamin C, vitamin D, and zinc supplementation.
Jul 6
PrEPPEP Margolin et al., Journal of Evidence-Based Integrative Medicine, doi:10.1177/2515690X211026193 (Peer Reviewed)
cases, ↓94.4%, p=0.003
20-Week Study of Clinical Outcomes of Over-the-Counter COVID-19 Prophylaxis and Treatment
Details   Retrospective 113 outpatients, 53 (patient choice) treated with zinc, quercetin, vitamin C/D/E, l-lysine, and Quina, showing lower cases with treatment. Results are subject to selection bias and limited information on the groups is provid..
Jul 1
Levels Bianconi et al., Nutrition, doi:10.1016/j.nut.2021.111408 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓17.5%, p=0.58
Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its prognostic impact on patients hospitalized with COVID-19
Details   Prospective study of 200 hospitalized patients in Italy, showing 80% of patients had vitamin D deficiency. There was no significant differences in outcomes based on vitamin D levels. There was also no significant difference in vitamin D l..
Jun 24
Late Sabico et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13072170 (Peer Reviewed) Effects of a 2-Week 5000 IU versus 1000 IU Vitamin D3 Supplementation on Recovery of Symptoms in Patients with Mild to Moderate Covid-19: A Randomized Clinical Trial
Details   Small RCT of 69 hospitalized patients comparing 1000IU and 5000IU daily cholecalciferol, showing faster recovery with the higher dose.
Jun 24
Meta Pal et al., Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, doi:10.1007/s40618-021-01614-4 (Peer Reviewed) (meta analysis)
meta-analysis
Vitamin D supplementation and clinical outcomes in COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Details   Meta analysis of 13 vitamin D treatment studies, showing significantly lower ICU admission/mortality with treatment.
Jun 24
Levels Beigmohammadi et al., Nutrition, doi:10.1016/j.nut.2021.111400 (Peer Reviewed) The association between serum levels of micronutrients and the severity of disease in patients with COVID-19
Details   Retrospective 60 ICU patients in Iran, showing that lower levels of vitamin D, magnesium, and zinc were significantly associated with higher APACHE scores (P = 0.001, 0.028, and <0.001, respectively) and higher lung involvement (P = 0.002..
Jun 22
Levels Zelzer et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13072129 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓46.4%, p=0.08
Vitamin D Metabolites and Clinical Outcome in Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients
Details   Retrospective 148 patients in Austria, showing no statistically significant differences in vitamin D levels and metabolites for mortality or respiratory support.
Jun 17
Levels Jude et al., Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, doi:10.1210/clinem/dgab439 (Peer Reviewed)
hosp., ↓71.6%, p<0.0001
Vitamin D deficiency is associated with higher hospitalisation risk from COVID-19: a retrospective case-control study
Details   Retrospective 80,670 people in the UK with vitamin D levels measured within the last 12 months, showing higher risk of hospitalization with low vitamin D levels.
Jun 14
PrEPPEP Campi et al., BMC Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1186/s12879-021-06281-7 (Peer Reviewed)
severe case, ↓88.4%, p<0.0001
Vitamin D and COVID-19 severity and related mortality: a prospective study in Italy
Details  
Jun 14
Levels Campi et al., BMC Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1186/s12879-021-06281-7 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓24.3%, p=0.53
Vitamin D and COVID-19 severity and related mortality: a prospective study in Italy
Details   Prospective study of 103 hospitalized patients in Italy, showing very high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency, and increased severity for lower vitamin D levels. Vitamin D supplementation was significantly less common for cases.
Jun 7
Levels Dror et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.06.04.21258358 (Preprint)
severe case, ↓85.1%, p=0.001
Pre-infection 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels and association with severity of COVID-19 illness
Details   Retrospective 253 hospitalized patients in Israel showing higher mortality and higher risk of severe cases with vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D levels were measured 14 to 730 days before the COVID-19 test. Adjusted results are only provid..
Jun 6
Levels Diaz-Curiel, Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2021.105928 (Peer Reviewed)
ICU, ↓73.2%, p=0.02
The relationship between 25(OH) vitamin D levels and COVID-19 onset and disease course in Spanish patients
Details   Retrospective 1,549 patients in Spain showing that the frequency of vitamin D deficiency was higher in admitted patients compared to the overall Spanish population, and that vitamin D deficiency was associated with increased risk of ICU a..
Jun 4
Levels Kotur et al., Frontiers in Nutrition, doi:10.3389/fnut.2021.689419 (Peer Reviewed) Association of Vitamin D, Zinc and Selenium Related Genetic Variants With COVID-19 Disease Severity
Details   Analysis of variants in genes significant for the status of vitamin D in 120 Serbian COVID-19 patients, showing that vitamin D related genetic variants DHCR7/NADSYN rs12785878 and CYP2R1 rs10741657 were associated with severe COVID-19 in ..
Jun 2
PrEPPEP Fasano et al., Movement Disorders, doi:10.1002/mds.28176 (Peer Reviewed)
cases, ↓42.0%, p=0.05
COVID-19 in Parkinson’s Disease Patients Living in Lombardy, Italy
Details   Retrospective phone survey of 1,486 Parkinson's disease patients in Italy, showing lower risk of COVID-19 cases with vitamin D supplementation. This paper also presents a case control study of PD patients and family member control patients.
Jun 1
Levels Butler-Laporte et al., PLOS Medicine, doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1003605 (Peer Reviewed) Vitamin D and COVID-19 susceptibility and severity in the COVID-19 Host Genetics Initiative: A Mendelian randomization study
Details   Mendelian randomization study not finding significant differences in COVID-19 outcomes based on vitamin D level. This study does not compare patients with deficiency/insuffiency/sufficiency, only providing ORs for increase in D levels. Au..
May 31
Levels Pimental et al., Clinical Nutrition ESPEN, doi:10.1016/j.clnesp.2021.05.021 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓29.4%, p=1.00
Low vitamin D levels and increased neutrophil in patients admitted at ICU with COVID-19
Details   Retrospective 25 ICU patients in Brazil, showing vitamin D deficiency associated with higher neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio. There appears to be a typo in the mortality percentage for vitamin D deficiency (20% is not valid for the group size..
May 29
Levels Sooriyaarachchi et al., Clinical Nutrition ESPEN, doi:10.1016/j.clnesp.2021.05.011 (Peer Reviewed) Impact of vitamin D deficiency on COVID-19
Details   Analysis of vitamin D deficiency and COVID-19 cases and deaths in 47 countries, showing vitamin D deficiency significantly associated with mortality.
May 28
Early Sánchez-Zuno, J. Clinical Medicine, doi:10.3390/jcm10112378 (Peer Reviewed)
severe case, ↓89.4%, p=0.04
Vitamin D Levels in COVID-19 Outpatients from Western Mexico: Clinical Correlation and Effect of Its Supplementation
Details   Very small 42 PCR+ outpatient RCT in Mexico, 22 treated with vitamin D. Most patients had insufficient vitamin D levels, there were more symptoms in those with insufficient levels, and there were less cases with fever or with >3 symptoms ..
May 26
In Silico Al-Mazaideh et al., Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, doi:10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i29B31603 (Peer Reviewed) Vitamin D is a New Promising Inhibitor to the Main Protease (Mpro) of COVID-19 by Molecular Docking
Details   In Silico study showing vitamin D binding with Mpro of SARS-CoV-2. Among the compounds tested, vitamin D had the highest potential interaction in terms of total H-bond, van der Waal, torsional, and desolvation energy. Authors recommend ad..
May 25
Levels Papadimitriou et al., World J. Virology, doi:10.5501/wjv.v10.i3.111] (Peer Reviewed) Association between population vitamin D status and SARS-CoV-2 related serious-critical illness and deaths: An ecological integrative approach
Details   Country analysis showing negative correlations between population vitamin D level and severe cases and death (but not with cases overall). Authors conclude that higher vitamin D levels may protect from severe cases and death, even more so..
May 22
Early Asimi et al., Endocrine Abstracts, doi:10.1530/endoabs.73.PEP14.2 (Preprint)
ventilation, ↓97.4%, p<0.0001
Selenium, zinc, and vitamin D supplementation affect the clinical course of COVID-19 infection in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis
Details   Retrospective 356 Hashimoto's thyroiditis outpatients, 270 taking vitamin D, zinc, and selenium, showing significantly lower hospitalization with treatment. Authors adjust for age, gender, BMI, and smoking status, reporting statistically ..
May 21
Late Alcala-Diaz et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13061760 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓80.8%, p=0.04
Calcifediol Treatment and Hospital Mortality Due to COVID-19: A Cohort Study
Details   Retrospective 537 patients in Spain, 79 treated with calcifediol, showing significantly lower mortality with treatment. The treated group had a higher risk of comorbidity, whereas the control group had lower O2 saturation, higher CURB‐65,..
May 19
Levels AlSafar et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13051714 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓59.3%, p=0.05
COVID-19 Disease Severity and Death in Relation to Vitamin D Status among SARS-CoV-2-Positive UAE Residents
Details   Retrospective 464 patients in United Arab Emirates showing low D levels at first hospital visit associated with higher COVID-19 severity and mortality.
May 19
Levels Li et al., JAMA Network Open, doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.11634 (Peer Reviewed)
cases, ↓8.6%, p=0.24
Assessment of the Association of Vitamin D Level With SARS-CoV-2 Seropositivity Among Working-Age Adults
Details   Cohort study of 18,148 patients in the USA showing low vitamin D associated with COVID-19 PCR+ status before adjustments but not after. Authors state that "low vitamin D levels were not independently associated with the risk of sero..
May 18
PrEPPEP Dudley et al., BJPsych Bulletin, doi:10.1192/bjb.2021.55 (Peer Reviewed)
symp. case, ↓22.4%, p=0.65
Revisiting vitamin D status and supplementation for in-patients with intellectual and developmental disability in the North of England, UK
Details   Retrospective 64 patients with intellectual and developmental disability in the UK, showing no sigificant difference in COVID-19 status with vitamin D supplementation. Only 6 patients were not on vitamin D supplementation.
May 8
Levels Savitri et al., Annals of the Romanian Society for Cell Biology, 25:6 (Peer Reviewed)
symp. case, ↓88.0%, p<0.0001
Comparison between Vitamin D Level of Asymptomatic Confirmed Covid-19 Patients with Symptomatic Confirmed Covid-19 Patients in Makassar
Details   Retrospective 42 PCR+ patients in Indonesia, showing significantly higher risk of symptomatic cases with vitamin D deficiency.
May 3
PrEPPEP Levitus et al., Journal of the Endocrine Society, doi: 10.1210/jendso/bvab048.567 (Peer Reviewed)
severe case, ↓30.8%, p=0.25
The Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Severe COVID-19 Outcomes in Patients With Vitamin D Insufficiency
Details   Retrospective 129 hospitalized patients with vitamin D levels measured within 90 days prior to admission, showing lower, but not statistically significant, risk of severe cases with vitamin D supplementation among patients with levels <20..
Apr 29
PrEPPEP Loucera et al., Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-021-02701-5 (preprint 4/29/21) (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓33.0%, p=0.009
Real world evidence of calcifediol or vitamin D prescription and mortality rate of COVID-19 in a retrospective cohort of hospitalized Andalusian patients
Details   Retrospective 15,968 hospitalized patients in Spain showing a significant reduction in mortality associated with the prescription of vitamin D, especially calcifediol, within 15-30 days prior to hospitalization.
Apr 26
Levels Al-Daghri et al., Journal of Translational Medicine, doi:10.1186/s12967-021-02838-x (Peer Reviewed) Vitamin D status of Arab Gulf residents screened for SARS-CoV-2 and its association with COVID-19 infection: a multi-centre case–control study
Details   Case control study with 220 adults showing significantly lower vitamin D levels in PCR+ patients.
Apr 18
Levels Elham et al., Clinical Nutrition ESPEN, doi:10.1016/j.clnesp.2021.03.040 (Peer Reviewed) Serum vitamin D, calcium, and zinc levels in patients with COVID-19
Details   Case control study with 93 hospitalized patients in Iran and 186 control patients, showing significantly lower vitamin D, zinc, and calcium levels in cases. IR.SHOUSHTAR.REC.1399.017.
Apr 17
Review Shah Alam et al., International Immunopharmacology, doi:10.1016/j.intimp.2021.107686 (Review) (Peer Reviewed)
review
The role of vitamin D in reducing SARS-CoV-2 infection: An update
Details   Review of vitamin D for COVID-19 noting that infections are likely to be more prevalent in the winter season; clinical trials show vitamin D as a potential therapeutic agent; vitamin D is beneficial against COVID-19 by reducing inflammato..
Apr 6
PrEPPEP Oristrell et al., Biomedicines, doi:10.3390/biomedicines9050509 (preprint 4/6/21) (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓43.0%, p=0.001
Association of Calcitriol Supplementation with Reduced COVID-19 Mortality in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: A Population-based Study
Details   Retrospective study of calcitriol supplementation with chronic kidney disease patients in Catalonia showing lower cases, severe cases, and mortality with supplementation. A dose-response relationship was found for severe cases and mortali..
Apr 5
Levels Ünsal et al., Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, doi:10.1007/s40618-021-01566-9 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓80.6%, p=0.23
Retrospective analysis of vitamin D status on ınflammatory markers and course of the disease in patients with COVID-19 infection
Details   Retrospective 56 patients in Turkey showing greater need for oxygen therapy and higher mortality with vitamin D deficiency, and significantly lower risk of pneumonia with vitamin D supplementation.
Apr 2
Levels Livingston et al., Int. J. Clinical Practive, doi:10.1111/ijcp.14166 (Peer Reviewed)
cases, ↓50.9%, p=0.02
Detectable respiratory SARS‐CoV‐2 RNA is associated with low vitamin D levels and high social deprivation
Details   Retrospective 104 consecutive patients tested for COVID-19 in a hospital in the UK, showing lower vitamin D and higher social deprivation associated with COVID-19 positive results.
Mar 31
Levels Bayramoğlu et al., European Journal of Pediatrics, doi:10.1007/s00431-021-04030-1 (Peer Reviewed)
severe case, ↓69.5%, p=0.03
The association between vitamin D levels and the clinical severity and inflammation markers in pediatric COVID-19 patients: single-center experience from a pandemic hospital
Details   Retrospective 103 pediatric hospitalized COVID-19 patients, showing an association between vitamin D deficiency and clinical severity.
Mar 30
PrEPPEP Holt et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.03.27.21254452 (Preprint)
cases, ↓6.8%, p=0.53
Risk factors for developing COVID-19: a population-based longitudinal study (COVIDENCE UK)
Details   Prospective survey-based study with 15,227 people in the UK, showing lower risk of COVID-19 cases with vitamin A, vitamin D, zinc, selenium, probiotics, and inhaled corticosteroids; and higher risk with metformin and vitamin C. Statistica..
Mar 29
Meta Akbar et al., Front. Nutr. 8:660420, doi:10.3389/fnut.2021.660420 (Peer Reviewed) (meta analysis)
meta-analysis
Low Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (Vitamin D) Level Is Associated With Susceptibility to COVID-19, Severity, and Mortality: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Details   Systematic review and meta analysis showing that low vitamin D levels was associated with COVID-19 cases, severity, and mortality.
Mar 27
Levels Gaudio et al., International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, doi:10.3390/ijerph18073491 (Peer Reviewed)
cases, ↓79.3%, p<0.0001
Vitamin D Levels Are Reduced at the Time of Hospital Admission in Sicilian SARS-CoV-2-Positive Patients
Details   Retrospective 50 COVID-19 hospitalized patients in Italy with vitamin D levels measured on admission, and 100 matched control patients, showing significantly lower vitamin D levels in COVID-19 patients. Vitamin D levels were also lower in..
Mar 27
Levels Freitas et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.03.22.21254032 (Preprint)
death, ↓41.2%, p=0.02
Vitamin D-related polymorphisms and vitamin D levels as risk biomarkers of COVID-19 infection severity
Details   Analysis of 491 hospitalized patients in Portugal showing that polymorphisms in the vitamin D binding protein encoded by the GC gene are related to COVID-19 severity (p = 0.005). There was an association between vitamin D polygenic risk s..
Mar 26
Meta Petrelli et al., The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2021.105883 (Peer Reviewed) (meta analysis)
meta-analysis
Therapeutic and prognostic role of vitamin D for COVID-19 infection: A systematic review and meta-analysis of 43 observational studies
Details   Meta analysis showing vitamin D deficiency associated with higher risk of COVID-19, worse severity, and higher mortality. Supplementation with vitamin D reduced the risk of severe cases and mortality.
Mar 22
Review Kohlmeier et al., BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health, doi:10.1136/bmjnph-2021-000265 (Review) (Peer Reviewed)
review
When Mendelian randomisation fails
Details   Analysis of why Mendelian randomization may fail in vitamin D studies. Authors suggest that it may come down to the use of 25-OHD concentration in serum as a less than ideal proxy for vitamin D status of cells involved in the immune respo..
Mar 19
Levels Meltzer et al., JAMA Netw Open., doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.4117 (Peer Reviewed)
cases, ↓34.6%, p=0.11
Association of Vitamin D Levels, Race/Ethnicity, and Clinical Characteristics With COVID-19 Test Results
Details   Retrospective 4,638 individuals with vitamin D levels within 1 year before COVID-19 testing, showing higher risk of COVID-19 PCR+ for vitamin D deficient individuals, and lower (but not statistically significant) cases for individuals usi..
Mar 14
Levels Vanegas-Cedillo, medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.03.12.21253490 (Preprint)
death, ↓52.6%, p=0.006
Serum Vitamin D levels are associated with increased COVID-19 severity markers and mortality independent of visceral adiposity
Details   Retrospective 551 moderate to severe COVID-19 patients in Mexico showing vitamin D ≤12ng/mL independently associated with COVID-19 mortality. No association was found between vitamin D levels and the need for intubation. Vitamin D deficie..
Mar 13
Levels Jayawardena et al., Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews, doi:10.1016/j.dsx.2021.03.006 (Peer Reviewed) Impact of the vitamin D deficiency on COVID-19 infection and mortality in Asian countries
Details   Analysis of Asian countries finding that prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and lower vitamin D levels were associated with COVID-19 infection and mortality. Positive correlations were observed for prevalence of vitamin D deficiency with..
Mar 12
Levels Ahmad et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.03.11.21253361 (Preprint)
death, ↓53.6%, p=0.03
Mean Vitamin D levels in 19 European Countries & COVID-19 Mortality over 10 months
Details   Retrospective 19 European countries showing countries with mean vitamin D levels > 50nmol/L have a 2.2 times lower risk of mortality (p = 0.032) compared to those with mean levels < 50 nmol/L.
Mar 8
Levels Charoenngam et al., Endocrine Practice, doi:10.1016/j.eprac.2021.02.013 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓34.1%, p=0.26
Association of vitamin D status with hospital morbidity and mortality in adult hospitalized COVID-19 patients
Details   Retrospective 287 hospitalized patients in the USA showing significantly lower mortality with vitamin D sufficiency in elderly patients and patients without obesity; and lower mortality for all patients but not reaching statistical signif..
Mar 7
Late Notz et al., Clinical Nutrition, doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2021.03.001 (Peer Reviewed) Vitamin D deficiency in critically ill COVID-19 ARDS patients
Details   Retrospective 26 ICU patients showing that the majority of patients had vitamin D deficiency. There was no statistically significant association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D status and clinical course, however low levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitami..
Mar 5
Levels Kralj et al., Critical Case Reports, doi:10.1002/ccr3.4010 (Peer Reviewed) Vitamin D and COVID‐19 in an immunocompromised patient with multiple comorbidities—A Case Report
Details   Case report of a high-risk immunocompromised patient with multiple comorbidities that had a mild case of COVID-19. The patient had UVB phototherapy three months earlier and had normal vitamin D levels (92.2 nmol/L, normal range 50-125).
Mar 5
PrEPPEP Mazziotti et al., J Endocrinol. Invest., doi:10.1007/s40618-021-01535-2 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓19.0%, p=0.49
Vitamin D deficiency, secondary hyperparathyroidism and respiratory insufficiency in hospitalized patients with COVID-19
Details   -
Mar 5
Levels Mazziotti et al., J Endocrinol. Invest., doi:10.1007/s40618-021-01535-2 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓2.4%, p=0.91
Vitamin D deficiency, secondary hyperparathyroidism and respiratory insufficiency in hospitalized patients with COVID-19
Details   Retrospective 348 hospitalized patients in Italy showing vitamin D deficiency associated with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. Vitamin D supplementation during hospitalization was not significantly associated with mortality or ventila..
Mar 4
Levels Lohia et al., American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism, doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00517.2020 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓14.7%, p=0.56
Exploring the link between vitamin D and clinical outcomes in COVID-19
Details   Retrospective 270 patients with vitamin D levels measured in the last year, showing no significant difference in outcomes based on vitamin D levels or vitamin D supplementation.
Mar 3
Levels Ricci et al., Respiratory Research, doi:10.1186/s12931-021-01666-3 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓87.6%, p=0.07
Circulating Vitamin D levels status and clinical prognostic indices in COVID-19 patients
Details   Retrospective 52 hospitalized COVID-19 patients showing that vitamin D deficiency is associated with compromised inflammatory responses and higher pulmonary involvement. Vitamin D deficient patients also showed higher mortality, although ..
Feb 28
Late Karen et al., International Journal of Progressive Science and Technologies, doi:10.52155/ijpsat.v27.2.3269 (Peer Reviewed) Vitamin D Associated Peculiarities in Women with Mild Covid-19 and Effect of Calcifediol on the Level of Vitamin D and Possibly, on Disease Outcome - Prospective Pilot Study
Details   Prospective study of 30 female COVID-19 patients, all treated with calcifediol on admission, showing significantly increased vitamin D levels with treatment. There was no mortality.
Feb 24
PrEPPEP Sulli et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13030717 (Peer Reviewed)
cases, ↓75.6%, p=0.0002
Vitamin D and Lung Outcomes in Elderly COVID-19 Patients
Details   Retrospective 65 elderly COVID-19 patients and 65 matched controls, showing lower vitamin D levels associated with more severe lung involvement, longer disease duration, and higher mortality. Vitamin D supplementation was less common in t..
Feb 23
Late Lakkireddy et al., Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-021-90189-4 (preprint 2/23/21) (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓60.9%, p=0.27
Impact of daily high dose oral vitamin D therapy on the inflammatory markers in patients with COVID 19 disease
Details   RCT 44 treatment and 43 control patients with vitamin D levels <30ng/ml, showing significant reduction in inflammatory markers with treatment of 60,000IU vitamin D per day for 8 days (10 days for BMI >25). Death and ICU admission was lowe..
Feb 19
Levels Gavioli et al., Journal of the American College of Nutrition, doi:10.1080/07315724.2020.1869626 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↑4.7%, p=0.83
An Evaluation of Serum 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D Levels in Patients with COVID-19 in New York City
Details   Retrospective 437 mostly serious condition (85% hospitalized) patients in New York, showing vitamin D deficiency associated with increased likelihood of oxygen support, but no association with mortality and hospitalization. Multivariate a..
Feb 18
Levels Infante et al., Journal of the American College of Nutrition, doi:10.1080/07315724.2021.1877580 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓54.8%, p=0.05
Low Vitamin D Status at Admission as a Risk Factor for Poor Survival in Hospitalized Patients With COVID-19: An Italian Retrospective Study
Details   Retrospective 137 hospitalized patients in Italy. All patients had low vitamin D levels, and lower levels were associated with higher mortality. In multivariate logistic regression, vitamin D levels were significantly inversely associate..
Feb 17
Early Burahee et al., SICOT-J, doi:10.1051/sicotj/2021001 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓93.3%, p=0.01
Older patients with proximal femur fractures and SARS-CoV-2 infection – An observational study
Details   Small retrospective study of 29 hip fracture patients in the UK, 14 with COVID-19. All COVID-19 patients were treated with vitamin D except for 2 where testing and supplementation was missed due to a clerical error. The two COVID-19 patie..
Feb 12
Levels Basaran et al., Bratislava Medical Journal, doi:10.4149/bll_2021_034 (Peer Reviewed)
severe case, ↓68.6%, p=0.005
The relationship between vitamin D and the severity of COVID-19
Details   Prospective study of 204 patients with COVID-19-like pneumonia in Turkey, 42 outpatients (mild cases), and 162 inpatients (serious cases), showing significantly higher risk of severe cases with vitamin D deficiency.
Feb 12
Levels Susianti et al., Journal of Medical Biochemistry, doi:10.5937/jomb0-30228 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓91.5%, p=0.32
Low levels of vitamin D were associated with coagulopathy among hospitalized coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) patients: A single-centered study in Indonesia
Details   Retrospective 50 hospitalized PCR+ patients in Indonesia showing ICU admission, mortality, ISTH DIC (Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation) score>=5, and increased D-dimer significantly associated with lower vitamin D levels.
Feb 9
PrEPPEP Hancock et al., SSRN, doi:10.2139/ssrn.3779211 (Preprint) Case Cluster of RT-PCR COVID-19 Positive Patients with an Unexpected Benign Clinical Course With Vitamin D, Melatonin, Vitamin C, and Viscum Album
Details   Case series of 24 COVID-19 patients (12 confirmed PCR+) treated with vitamin D, vitamin C, and melatonin, showing positive outcomes with no patient having worse than a mild case, including 7 high risk patients.
Feb 3
Levels Yadav et al., Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry, doi:10.1007/s12291-020-00950-1 (Peer Reviewed) Association of Vitamin D Status with COVID-19 Infection and Mortality in the Asia Pacific region: A Cross-Sectional Study
Details   Analysis of vitamin D levels and COVID-19 in 37 Asia Pacific countries, finding a significant association with the number of cases/million (r =  −0.394, p = 0.016) and a weak association with the number of deaths/ million (r =  −0.280, p ..
Feb 2
Levels Söbü et al., The Journal of Current Pediatrics, doi:10.4274/jcp.2021.0002 (Peer Reviewed) Vitamin D Levels of COVID-19 Positive Sypmtomatic Pediatric Cases
Details   Retrospective 30 hospitalized pediatric COVID-19 patients and 82 healthy controls, showing significantly lower vitamin D levels in COVID-19 patients.
Feb 1
Levels Patchen et al., BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health, doi:10.1136/bmjnph-2021-000255 (Peer Reviewed)
severe case, ↓2.0%, p=0.11
Genetically predicted serum vitamin D and COVID-19: a Mendelian randomization study
Details   UK Biobank Mendelian randomization study not finding significant differences in COVID-19 risk. The number of people predicted to have vitamin D deficiency does not appear to be provided. For some background on Mendelian randomization stu..
Jan 31
Levels Nadiger et al., Critical Care Medicine, doi:10.1097/01.ccm.0000726440.30551.47 (Peer Reviewed) Vitamin D Levels in Children With COVID-19 Admitted to the PICU
Details   Retrospective 14 pediatric COVID-19 ICU patients showing that the majority were vitamin D deficient.
Jan 29
Levels Demir et al., Journal of Medical Virology, doi:10.1002/jmv.26832 (Peer Reviewed)
severe case, ↓89.3%, p<0.001
Vitamin D deficiency is associated with COVID‐19 positivity and the severity of the disease
Details   Retrospective cohort study of 487 patients finding that lower vitamin D levels is associated with more severe cases as measured by affected lung segments and increased hospitalization time for COVID-19 positive patients, and that lower vi..
Jan 29
PrEPPEP Ma et al., The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, doi:10.1093/ajcn/nqaa381 (Peer Reviewed)
cases, ↓30.0%, p=0.03
Habitual use of vitamin D supplements and risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection: a prospective study in UK Biobank
Details   Retrospective 8,297 adults from the UK Biobank showing the habitual use of vitamin D supplements significantly associated with lower risk of COVID-19 cases. Note that the information on vitamin D supplement use was collected a median of 1..
Jan 29
Levels Rafailia et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.01.28.21250673 (Preprint) Is vitamin D deficiency associated with the COVID-19 epidemic in Europe
Details   Analysis of vitamin D deficiency and COVID-19 cases and mortality in European countries showing significant correlations with infections (r=0.82, p<0.001) and mortality (r=0.53, p=0.05).
Jan 28
Review Brenner, H., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13020411 (Review) (Peer Reviewed)
review
Vitamin D Supplementation to Prevent COVID-19 Infections and Deaths—Accumulating Evidence from Epidemiological and Intervention Studies Calls for Immediate Action
Details   Summary of epidemiological and intervention studies for vitamin D supplementation. Author concludes that despite limitations, evidence strongly supports widespread supplementation, in particular for high-risk populations, as well as high-..
Jan 25
Levels Tehrani et al., Clinical Nutrition, doi:10.1016/j.clnesp.2021.01.014 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓47.5%, p=0.07
Evaluation of vitamin D levels in COVID-19 patients referred to Labafinejad hospital in Tehran and its relationship with disease severity and mortality
Details   Retrospective 205 patients in Iran, showing higher mortality with vitamin D deficiency, not quite reaching statistical significance.
Jan 25
Levels Barassi et al., Panminerva Med., doi:10.23736/S0031-0808.21.04277-4 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓64.9%, p=0.44
Vitamin D in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) patients with non-invasive ventilation support
Details   Retrospective 118 consecutive hospitalized PCR+ patients in Italy showing higher ventilation and mortality with vitamin D deficiency.
Jan 22
Late Nogués et al., The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, doi:10.1210/clinem/dgab405 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓79.0%, p=0.001
Calcifediol Treatment and COVID-19-Related Outcomes
Details   Quasi-randomized trial with 930 hospitalized patients, 447 treated with calcifediol, showing significantly lower ICU admission and death with treatment. Note that the randomization in this trial is by ward. Authors report that patients we..
Jan 21
Levels Walrand, S., Nature, doi:10.1038/s41598-021-81419-w (Peer Reviewed) Autumn COVID-19 surge dates in Europe correlated to latitudes, not to temperature-humidity, pointing to vitamin D as contributing factor
Details   Analysis of the increase in COVID-19 cases in European countries, showing no correlation with temperature, but a significant correlation with country latitude. Since UV radiation decreases earlier for higher latitudes, this supports the t..
Jan 19
Levels Orchard et al., Clin Chem Lab Med, doi:10.1515/cclm-2020-1567 (Peer Reviewed)
ICU, ↓58.8%, p=0.001
Vitamin-D levels and intensive care unit outcomes of a cohort of critically ill COVID-19 patients
Details   Retrospective 165 hospitalized patients with known vitamin D levels, showing an associated between vitamin D deficiency and ICU admission. There was no statistically significant difference in clinical outcomes for ICU patients. It's uncle..
Jan 18
PrEPPEP Vasheghani et al., Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-021-97017-9 (preprint 1/18/2021) (Preprint)
death, ↓30.4%, p=0.45
The relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and the severity of COVID-19 disease and its mortality
Details   Retrospective 508 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Iran showing lower mortality with vitamin D supplementation (not reaching statistical significance), and an association between lower vitamin D levels and disease severity, ICU admission..
Jan 16
Levels Hutchings et al., Endocrine, doi:/10.1007/s12020-020-02597-7 (Peer Reviewed) Patients hospitalized with COVID-19 have low levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D
Details   Retrospective 330 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Armenia, showing significantly higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (<12ng/mL) compared to health controls (45% vs. 13%).
Jan 14
Late Giannini et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13010219 (Peer Reviewed)
death/ICU, ↓36.6%, p=0.13
Effectiveness of In-Hospital Cholecalciferol Use on Clinical Outcomes in Comorbid COVID-19 Patients: A Hypothesis-Generating Study
Details   Retrospective 91 hospitalized patients, 36 treated with high-dose cholecalciferol, showing lower combined death/ICU admission with treatment. Authors also analyze the relationship with comorbidity burden, finding that the positive effect..
Jan 12
Levels Bennouar et al., Journal of the American College of Nutrition, doi:10.1080/07315724.2020.1856013 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓85.5%, p=0.002
Vitamin D Deficiency and Low Serum Calcium as Predictors of Poor Prognosis in Patients with Severe COVID-19
Details   Prospective study of 120 severe cases of COVID-19 in Algeria finding low vitamin D and low calcium both associated with increased mortality.
Jan 11
Levels Li et al., Aging and Disease, doi:10.14336/AD.2020.1108 (Peer Reviewed)
severe case, ↓36.2%, p<0.0001
Metabolic Healthy Obesity, Vitamin D Status, and Risk of COVID-19
Details   UK Biobank retrospective 353,299 patients showing that vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency are associated with increased COVID-19 risk. This study also analyzes metabolic/obesity phenotypes and the combination with vitamin D status.
Jan 9
Levels Angelidi et al., Mayo Clinic Proceedings, doi:10.1016/j.mayocp.2021.01.001 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓88.0%, p=0.01
Vitamin D Status is Associated With In-hospital Mortality and Mechanical Ventilation: A Cohort of COVID-19 Hospitalized Patients
Details   Retrospective 144 patients in the USA showing significantly lower mortality for vitamin D levels >=30ng/mL.
Jan 7
Levels Pal et al., Frontiers in Medicine, doi:10.3389/fmed.2020.590805 (Peer Reviewed) High Prevalence of Hypocalcemia in Non-severe COVID-19 Patients: A Retrospective Case-Control Study
Details   Retrospective 72 non-severe COVID-19 patients in India, showing very high levels of vitamin D deficiency (70 of 72 patients).
Jan 7
Levels Amin et al., BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health, doi:10.1136/bmjnph-2020-000151 (Peer Reviewed)
progression, ↑32.3%, p=0.20
No evidence that vitamin D is able to prevent or affect the severity of COVID-19 in individuals with European ancestry: a Mendelian randomisation study of open data
Details   Analysis of vitamin D levels and COVID-19 cases and severity based on genetic predisposition to higher vitamin D levels or lower vitamin D deficiency, finding no significant association. For some background on Mendelian randomization stu..
Jan 5
PrEPPEP Nikniaz et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.01.04.21249219 (Preprint) (meta analysis)
death, ↓67.5%, p=0.008
The impact of vitamin D supplementation on mortality rate and clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Details   Meta analysis of 4 supplementation studies, finding that vitamin D supplementation "seems to decrease the mortality rate, the severity of the disease, and serum levels of the inflammatory markers". Mortality odds ratio OR 0.264,..
Dec 31
2020
Levels Karonova et al., Infectology, doi:10.22625/2072-6732-2020-12-3-21-27 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓79.4%, p=0.11
Serum 25(oH)D level in patients with CoVID-19
Details   Retrospective 80 COVID-19 patients showing low vitamin D levels associated with severity and mortality.
Dec 30
2020
Levels Szeto et al., Endocrine Research, doi:10.1080/07435800.2020.1867162 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↑5.6%, p=1.00
Vitamin D Status and COVID-19 Clinical Outcomes in Hospitalized Patients
Details   Retrospective 93 hospitalized patients with vitamin D levels 1-365 days before admission, not showing significant differences with vitamin D deficiency or vitamin D levels. Vitamin D levels may vary significantly throughout the year creat..
Dec 30
2020
Review McCullough et al., Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, doi:10.31083/j.rcm.2020.04.264 (Review) (Peer Reviewed)
review
Multifaceted highly targeted sequential multidrug treatment of early ambulatory high-risk SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19)
Details   Review urging early treatment of COVID-19 with sequential multidrug treatment that has been shown to be safe and effective. Proposed treatment includes zinc, vitamin D & C, quercetin, and depending on age, comorbidities, and symptoms may ..
Dec 28
2020
Late Jevalikar et al., Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-021-85809-y (preprint 12/28) (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓82.0%, p=0.12
Lack of association of baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels with disease severity and mortality in Indian patients hospitalized for COVID-19
Details   Prospective study of 410 hospitalized patients in India showing lower mortality and ICU admission with cholecalciferol treatment, although not statistically significant with the small number of cases. The median total dose was 60000IU. N..
Dec 26
2020
Late Sistanizad et al., European Journal of Integrative Medicine, doi:10.1016/j.eujim.2020.101271 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓63.5%, p=0.004
High dose vitamin D improves total serum antioxidant capacity and ICU outcome in critically ill patients - a randomized, double-blind clinical trial
Details   RCT of 30 ventilated ICU patients showing lower mortality with vitamin D treatment, RR 0.36, p = 0.004. Authors do not indicate why the patients were hospitalized or if any of the patients were COVID-19 patients. 300,000 IU intramuscular ..
Dec 22
2020
PrEPPEP Cangiano et al., Aging, doi:10.18632/aging.202307 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓70.0%, p=0.04
Mortality in an Italian nursing home during COVID-19 pandemic: correlation with gender, age, ADL, vitamin D supplementation, and limitations of the diagnostic tests
Details   70% lower mortality with vitamin D supplementation. Analysis of 98 PCR+ nursing home residents in Italy, mean age 90, vitamin D supplementation RR 0.30, p = 0.04. The paper provides the p value for regression but not the effect size. Trea..
Dec 12
2020
Levels Abdollahi et al., Journal of Medical Virology, doi:10.1002/jmv.26726 (Peer Reviewed)
cases, ↓53.9%, p=0.001
The Association Between the Level of Serum 25(OH) Vitamin D, Obesity, and underlying Diseases with the risk of Developing COVID‐19 Infection: A case‐control study of hospitalized patients in Tehran, Iran
Details   Case control study with 201 patients and 201 matched controls in Iran showing vitamin D deficiency associated with COVID-19.
Dec 11
2020
Late Ling et el., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu12123799 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓79.8%, p<0.001
High-Dose Cholecalciferol Booster Therapy is Associated with a Reduced Risk of Mortality in Patients with COVID-19: A Cross-Sectional Multi-Centre Observational Study
Details   80% lower mortality with cholecalciferol booster therapy. Retrospective 986 hospitalized patients in the UK finding that cholecalciferol booster therapy, regardless of baseline serum levels, was associated with a reduced risk of mortality..
Dec 10
2020
News VitaminDForAll (News)
news
Over 100 Scientists, Doctors, & Leading Authorities Call For Increased Vitamin D Use To Combat COVID-19
Details   Over 100 scientists and doctors call for efforts to increase vitamin D levels. Recommendations include reaching 75 nmol/L serum levels, 2000-4000IU daily supplementation (in the absence of testing), and measurement and treatment in hospit..
Dec 9
2020
Levels Vassiliou et al., Hellenic Journal of Cardiology, doi:10.1016/j.hjc.2020.11.011 (Peer Reviewed) Vitamin D deficiency correlates with a reduced number of natural killer cells in intensive care unit (ICU) and non-ICU patients with COVID-19 pneumonia
Details   Observational study of 29 ICU patients and 10 non-ICU patients showing vitamin D levels positively correlated with cytotoxic T cells, natural killer (NK) cells, NK-T cells, and regulatory T cells.
Dec 9
2020
Levels Vassiliou et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu12123773 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓90.9%, p=0.04
Low 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels on Admission to the Intensive Care Unit May Predispose COVID-19 Pneumonia Patients to a Higher 28-Day Mortality Risk: A Pilot Study on a Greek ICU Cohort
Details   Small prospective study of 30 ICU patients, showing higher mortality risk for low vitamin D levels. When divided into two groups at the median level, there was 5 of 15 deaths for the low vitamin D group compared to 0 of 15 in the high vit..
Dec 5
2020
Levels Alguwaihes et al., Cardiovascular Diabetology, doi:10.1186/s12933-020-01184-4 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓85.7%, p=0.007
Diabetes and Covid-19 among hospitalized patients in Saudi Arabia: a single-centre retrospective study
Details   Retrospective 439 diabetic hospitalized patients in Saudi Arabia showing lower mortality with vitamin D >12.5 nmol/L, adjusted hazard ratio aHR 0.14, p = 0.007.
Dec 4
2020
Levels Katz el al., Nutrition, doi:10.1016/j.nut.2020.111106 (Peer Reviewed)
cases, ↓78.4%, p<0.001
Increased risk for Covid-19 in patients with Vitamin D deficiency
Details   Retrospective database analysis showing patients with vitamin D deficiency were 4.6 times more likely to be COVID-19 positive, p<0.001.
Nov 30
2020
PrEPPEP Louca et al., BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health, doi:10.1136/bmjnph-2021-000250 (preprint 11/30/20) (Peer Reviewed)
cases, ↓7.5%, p=0.0007
Modest effects of dietary supplements during the COVID-19 pandemic: insights from 445 850 users of the COVID-19 Symptom Study app
Details   Survey analysis of dietary supplements showing vitamin D usage associated with lower incidence of COVID-19. These results are for PCR+ cases only, they do not reflect potential benefits for reducing the severity of cases. A number of bias..
Nov 25
2020
Levels De Smet et al., American Journal of Clinical Pathology, doi:10.1093/ajcp/aqaa252 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓70.1%, p=0.02
Serum 25(OH)D Level on Hospital Admission Associated With COVID-19 Stage and Mortality
Details   Retrospective 186 hospitalized patients in Belgium showing that 59% of patients were vitamin D deficient, and that non-vitamin D deficient patients had significantly lower mortality risk, RR 0.26, p = 0.015.
Nov 19
2020
Levels Jain et al., Nature, doi:10.1038/s41598-020-77093-z (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓85.2%, p=0.001
Analysis of vitamin D level among asymptomatic and critically ill COVID-19 patients and its correlation with inflammatory markers
Details   Prospective study of 91 asymptomatic and 63 ICU patients showing significantly higher vitamin D deficiency in the ICU patients (97% vs. 33%).
Nov 17
2020
Late Murai et al., JAMA, doi:10.1001/jama.2020.26848 (preprint 11/17) (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↑48.7%, p=0.43
Effect of a Single High Dose of Vitamin D3 on Hospital Length of Stay in Patients With Moderate to Severe COVID-19: A Randomized Clinical Trial
Details   Very late stage (mean 10 days from symptom onset, 90% on oxygen at baseline) vitamin D supplementation RCT not showing significant differences. Ethnicity was poorly matched between arms, and diabetes was 41% in the treatment arm vs. 29% ..
Nov 13
2020
Levels Luo et al., The Journal of Nutrition, doi:10.1093/jn/nxaa332 (Peer Reviewed)
progression, ↓63.0%, p=0.01
Vitamin D Deficiency Is Inversely Associated with COVID-19 Incidence and Disease Severity in Chinese People
Details   Retrospective 335 patients in China compared to 560 matched controls showing significanlty lower risk of severe COVID-19 with vitamin D sufficiency (>=30 nmol/L) OR 0.37, p = 0.014.
Nov 12
2020
Meta Jungreis et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.11.08.20222638 (Preprint) Mathematical analysis of Córdoba calcifediol trial suggests strong role for Vitamin D in reducing ICU admissions of hospitalized COVID-19 patients
Details   Analysis of Castillo et al. confirming efficacy of calcifediol treatment. Authors find that issues related to imperfect blinding and comorbidities can not explain the result found. See [1] for a response to issues raised on this analysis.
Nov 12
2020
Late Rastogi et al., Postgraduate Medical Journal, doi:10.1136/postgradmedj-2020-139065 (Peer Reviewed)
viral+, ↓52.6%, p=0.02
Short term, high-dose vitamin D supplementation for COVID-19 disease: a randomised, placebo-controlled, study (SHADE study)
Details   53% reduction in PCR+ with high-dose cholecalciferol supplementation. RCT with 16 treatment patients and 24 control patients. Relative risk of PCR+ at 2 weeks with treatment, RR 0.47, p=0.18 25(OH)D levels at day 14 were 52 ng/ml vs. 15..
Nov 11
2020
PrEPPEP Cereda et al., Nutrition, doi:10.1016/j.nut.2020.111055 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↑73.0%, p=0.14
Vitamin D supplementation and outcomes in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients from the outbreak area of Lombardy, Italy
Details   Retrospective 105 Parkinson's disease patients, 92 caregivers, and 127 hospital inpatients, showing higher, but not statistically significant mortality and hospitalization with treatment. Supplementation was defined as >=25,000IU/month fo..
Nov 9
2020
Levels Walk et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.11.07.20227512 (Preprint)
int./death, ↑0.4%, p=1.00
Vitamin D - contrary to vitamin K - does not associate with clinical outcome in hospitalized COVID-19 patients
Details   Small retrospective study of 135 patients not finding a significant difference in vitamin D status. Patients with good outcomes had a median of 45.0 nmol/L versus 37.7 nmol/L for bad outcomes, p = 0.85. Authors found that vitamin D suffi..
Nov 2
2020
PrEPPEP Annweiler et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu12113377 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓93.0%, p=0.02
Vitamin D Supplementation Associated to Better Survival in Hospitalized Frail Elderly COVID-19 Patients: The GERIA-COVID Quasi-Experimental Study
Details   Retrospective study finding that regular bolus vitamin D supplementation was associated with less severe COVID-19 and better survival in frail elderly. For those receiving regular supplementation: Adjusted mortality hazard ratio with su..
Nov 1
2020
Levels Cereda et al., Clinical Nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland), doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2020.10.055 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↑120.0%, p=0.04
Vitamin D 25OH deficiency in COVID-19 patients admitted to a tertiary referral hospital
Details   Prospective cohort study of 129 adult hospitalized COVID-19 patients finding patients with vitamin D levels >20ng/mL had increased mortality after adjustment. This study does not account for the risk of having a serious enough case to be ..
Oct 31
2020
Late Ohaegbulam et al., American Journal of Therapeutics, doi:10.1097/MJT.0000000000001222 (Peer Reviewed) Vitamin D Supplementation in COVID-19 Patients: A Clinical Case Series
Details   Small case study of 4 vitamin D deficient patients with 2 patients treated with cholecalciferol 1000 IU daily and two patients treated with ergocalciferol 50,000 IU daily for 5 days (high dose), showing that patients receiving high dose t..
Oct 31
2020
Review Mercola et al., Nutrients 2020, 12:11, 3361, doi:10.3390/nu12113361 (Review) (Peer Reviewed)
review
Evidence Regarding Vitamin D and Risk of COVID-19 and Its Severity
Details   Review of vitamin D and COVID-19 concluding that the evidence seems strong enough that people and physicians can use or recommend vitamin D supplements to prevent or treat COVID-19 in light of their safety and wide therapeutic window.
Oct 30
2020
Levels Abrishami et al., European Journal of Nutrition, doi:10.1007/s00394-020-02411-0 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓75.9%, p=0.04
Possible association of vitamin D status with lung involvement and outcome in patients with COVID-19: a retrospective study
Details   Retrospective 73 hospitalized patients showing the probability of death in patients with vitamin D deficiency (< 25ng/mL) was 34.6% compared with 6.4% in patients with sufficient vitamin D levels.
Oct 27
2020
Levels Hernández et al., The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, doi:10.1210/clinem/dgaa733 (Peer Reviewed)
death/ICU, ↓83.0%, p<0.0001
Vitamin D Status in Hospitalized Patients with SARS-CoV-2 Infection
Details   Retrospective 216 COVID-19 patients and 197 population controls, showing vitamin D deficiency in 82.2% of COVID-19 cases and 47.2% of population-based controls (P < .0001). Authors note: "We did not find any relationship between vita..
Oct 26
2020
Levels Tomasa-Irriguible et al., Metabolites, doi:10.3390/metabo11090565 (preprint 10/26/2020) (Peer Reviewed)
ventilation, ↓35.0%, p=0.21
Low Levels of Few Micronutrients May Impact COVID-19 Disease Progression: An Observational Study on the First Wave
Details   Retrospective 120 hospitalized patients in Spain showing no significant differences for vitamin D deficiency.
Oct 21
2020
Review Basha et al., Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health, doi:10.1016/j.cegh.2020.10.005 (Review) (Peer Reviewed)
review
Is the shielding effect of cholecalciferol in SARS CoV-2 infection dependable? An evidence based unraveling
Details   Review of vitamin D for COVID-19, concluding that the available evidence is very suggestive of protective and preventive effect of vitamin D. Authors note that strict lockdown (longer time indoors and home quarantine) may increase the r..
Oct 21
2020
Levels Macaya et al., Nutr. Hosp., doi:10.20960/nh.03193 (Peer Reviewed)
severe case, ↓55.0%, p=0.07
Interaction between age and vitamin D deficiency in severe COVID-19 infection
Details   Retrospective 80 hospitalized patients in Spain showing higher risk of severe COVID-19 with vitamin D deficiency.
Oct 20
2020
PrEPPEP Blanch-Rubió et al., Aging, doi:10.18632/aging.104117 (Peer Reviewed)
cases, ↓8.0%, p=0.68
Influence of anti-osteoporosis treatments on the incidence of COVID-19 in patients with non-inflammatory rheumatic conditions
Details   Retrospective 2,102 rheumatology patients in Spain showing lower, but not statistically significant, cases with vitamin D supplementation. Details of vitamin D supplementation are not providied - other patients may have also independently..
Oct 13
2020
Early, PrEP Annweiler et al., The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105771 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓89.0%, p=0.002
Vitamin D and survival in COVID-19 patients: A quasi-experimental study
Details   Vitamin D3 supplementation during or just before COVID-19 was associated with 68% lower mortality and less severe COVID-19 in frail elderly. Retrospective 66 French nursing home residents, mean age 87.7, 9 control patients, and 57 that r..
Oct 13
2020
Levels Ye et al., Journal of the American College of Nutrition, doi:10.1080/07315724.2020.182600 (Peer Reviewed)
hosp., ↓93.4%, p=0.03
Does Serum Vitamin D Level Affect COVID-19 Infection and Its Severity? A Case-Control Study
Details   Case control study in China comparing 62 patients with 80 healthy controls showing vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor for COVID-19, especially for severe/critical cases.
Oct 6
2020
Levels Faniyi et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.10.05.20206706 (Preprint)
seropositive, ↓28.8%, p=0.003
Vitamin D status and seroconversion for COVID-19 in UK healthcare workers who isolated for COVID-19 like symptoms during the 2020 pandemic
Details   Analysis of vitamin D status and anti-SARS-Cov-2 antibodies in UK healthcare workers finding that Vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor for COVID-19 seroconversion.
Oct 5
2020
Levels Yılmaz et al., Pediatric Pulmonology, doi:10.1002/ppul.25106 (Peer Reviewed)
severe case, ↓73.4%, p=1.00
Is vitamin D deficiency a risk factor for COVID‐19 in children?
Details   Retrospective 40 hospitalized pediatric COVID-19 patients and 45 healthy controls showing significantly lower vitamin D levels for COVID-19 patients (13.1 vs. 34.8µg/L), and that, within the hospitalized patients, there was more moderate ..
Oct 5
2020
Levels Karahan et al., J. Nutr. Health Aging, doi:10.1007/s12603-020-1479-0 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓82.5%, p<0.0001
Impact of Serum 25(OH) Vitamin D Level on Mortality in Patients with COVID-19 in Turkey
Details   Retrospective 149 COVID-19 patients, 69.1% with vitamin D deficiency, showing lower vitamin D levels associated with higher mortality.
Sep 30
2020
Levels Kerget el al., Tuberk Toraks, doi:10.5578/tt.70027 (Peer Reviewed) Evaluation of the relationship of serum vitamin D levels in COVID-19 patients with clinical course and prognosis
Details   Prospective study of 88 hospitalized PCR+ COVID-19 patients and 20 asymptomatic PCR- medical personnel, showing lower vitamin D levels correlated with COVID-19 and with the development of ARDS and MAS.
Sep 25
2020
Levels Maghbooli et al., PLOS One, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0239799 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓51.7%, p=0.08
Vitamin D sufficiency, a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D at least 30 ng/mL reduced risk for adverse clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19 infection
Details   Retrospective 235 hospitalized patients showing a significant association between vitamin D sufficiency and reduction in clinical severity. For patients over 40, mortality was 9.7% with 25(OH)D levels >30ng/mL, versus 20% for <30ng/mL. ..
Sep 17
2020
Levels Kaufman et al., PLOS One, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0239252 (Peer Reviewed)
cases, ↓53.0%, p<0.001
SARS-CoV-2 positivity rates associated with circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels
Details   Analysis of 191,779 patients in the US finding COVID-19 positivity strongly and inversely associated with circulating 25(OH)D levels. The relationship persists across latitudes, races/ethnicities, gender, and age ranges. COVID-19 adjuste..
Sep 10
2020
Levels Radujkovic et al., Nutrients 2020, 12:9, 2757, doi:10.3390/nu12092757 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓93.2%, p=0.001
Vitamin D Deficiency and Outcome of COVID-19 Patients
Details   Observational study 185 patients in Germany shows an association between vitamin D status and severity and mortality. Adjusted hazard ratio of vitamin D sufficiency for combined mechanical ventilation and death was HR 0.16, p < 0.001, and..
Sep 10
2020
Levels Israel et al., medRxiv, doi:https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.09.04.20188268v1 (Preprint)
cases, ↓21.3%, p<0.001
The link between vitamin D deficiency and Covid-19 in a large population
Details   Large observational population study showing a strong association between vitamin D deficiency and COVID-19. Liquid vitamin D (more commonly used in this study) was associated with lower risk of cases, however tablets were associated wit..
Sep 3
2020
Levels Meltzer et al., JAMA network open, 3:9, doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.19722 (Peer Reviewed)
cases, ↓43.5%, p=0.02
Association of Vitamin D Status and Other Clinical Characteristics With COVID-19 Test Results
Details   Retrospective 489 patients showing 44% lower risk for COVID-19 with vitamin D sufficiency, relative risk RR = 0.56, p = 0.02.
Aug 29
2020
Late Castillo et al., Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 203, October 2020, doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2020.105751 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓85.4%, p=0.11
Effect of calcifediol treatment and best available therapy versus best available therapy on intensive care unit admission and mortality among patients hospitalized for COVID-19: A pilot randomized clinical study
Details   RCT on calcifediol (25-hydroxyvitamin D) treatment for hospitalized COVID-19 patients showing significantly reduced intensive care unit admissions. All patients received standard care including HCQ+AZ. Significantly lower ICU admission ..
Aug 28
2020
Levels Mardani et al., Virus Research, doi:10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198148 (Peer Reviewed) Association of vitamin D with the modulation of the disease severity in COVID-19
Details   Prospective study of 123 outpatients in Iran, showing mortality associated with significantly lower vitamin D levels. IR.SBMU.RETECH.REC.1399.131.
Aug 27
2020
Levels Baktash et al., Postgraduate Medical Journal, doi:10.1136/postgradmedj-2020-138712 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓28.6%, p=0.50
Vitamin D status and outcomes for hospitalised older patients with COVID-19
Details   Prospective study of 105 hospitalized patients, showing lower vitamin D levels in the COVID-19 positive group (27.0 nmol/L vs 52.0 nmol/L, p=0.0008), and non-statistically significant higher mortality with vitamin D deficiency.
Aug 26
2020
Review Xu et al., Journal of Translational Medicine, doi:10.1186/s12967-020-02488-5 (Review) (Peer Reviewed)
review
The importance of vitamin d metabolism as a potential prophylactic, immunoregulatory and neuroprotective treatment for COVID-19
Details   Review of vitamin D for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19, focusing on preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection, acting as an immunosuppressant inhibiting cytokine release syndrome, and preventing loss of neural sensation by stimulating exp..
Aug 26
2020
Early Afshar et al., Journal of Contemporary Medical Sciences, 10.22317/jcms.v6i4.822 (Peer Reviewed) Suggested role of Vitamin D supplementation in COVID-19 severity
Details   Brief report noting that there was a dramatic and complete resolution of ICU admissions after adding routine vitamin D supplementation to standard of care.
Aug 26
2020
Levels Hastie et al., Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research and Reviews, 14:4, 561–565, doi:10.1016/j.dsx.2020.04.050 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓17.4%, p=0.31
Vitamin D concentrations and COVID-19 infection in UK Biobank
Details   Database analysis of 341,484 patients in the UK with 656 hospitalized confirmed COVID-19 patients and 203 deaths, not showing a statistically significant difference after adjustment. Since adjustment factors may be correlated with vitamin..
Aug 15
2020
Early Espitia-Hernandez et al., Biomedical Research, 31:5 (Peer Reviewed)
recov. time, ↓70.0%, p<0.0001
Effects of Ivermectin-azithromycin-cholecalciferol combined therapy on COVID-19 infected patients: A proof of concept study
Details   Small study with 28 patients treated with ivermectin + AZ + cholecalciferol and 7 control patients. All treated patients were PCR- at day 10 while all control patients remained PCR+. The mean duration of symptoms was 3 days in the treatm..
Aug 11
2020
Levels Im et al., Int. J. Infect. Dis., doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2020.08.018 (Peer Reviewed)
cases, ↓73.1%, p=0.0003
Nutritional status of patients with COVID-19
Details   Nutrient study of 50 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in South Korea showing that 76% of patients were vitamin D deficient. Comparison with 150 matched controls showed a higher probability of cases with vitamin D deficiency.
Aug 9
2020
Levels Carpagnano et al., J. Endocrinol. Invest., 2020, Aug 9, 1-7, doi:10.1007/s40618-020-01370-x (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓70.6%, p=0.05
Vitamin D deficiency as a predictor of poor prognosis in patients with acute respiratory failure due to COVID-19
Details   Retrospective study 42 patients with acute respiratory failure, 81% with low vitamin D levels. After 10 days, patients with severe vitamin D deficiency had a 50% probability of dying, while those with vitamin D ≥ 10 ng/mL had a 5% mortal..
Jul 23
2020
Levels Merzon et al., The FEBS Journal, doi:doi.org/10.1111/febs.15495 (Peer Reviewed)
hosp., ↓46.4%, p=0.06
Low plasma 25(OH) vitamin D level is associated with increased risk of COVID‐19 infection: an Israeli population‐based study
Details   Analysis of 7,807 patients finding that low vitamin D levels are correlated with increased risk of cases and hospitalization. Adjusted odds ratio OR for sufficient vitamin D level for cases 0.69, p < 0.001, and for hospitalization 0.51, p..
Jul 23
2020
Levels Lansiaux et al., Spat. Spatiotemporal Epidemiol, doi:10.1016/j.sste.2020.100362 (Peer Reviewed) Covid-19 and vit-d: Disease mortality negatively correlates with sunlight exposure
Details   Analysis of COVID-19 mortality rate and sunlight exposure finding a correlation that suggests a protective effect of sunlight exposure. In continental metropolitan France, average annual sunlight hours were found to be significantly cor..
Jul 20
2020
Late Krishnan et al., J Clin Anesth., doi:10.1016/j.jclinane.2020.110005 (Peer Reviewed)
death, ↓19.0%, p=0.42
Clinical comorbidities, characteristics, and outcomes of mechanically ventilated patients in the State of Michigan with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia
Details   Retrospective 152 mechanically ventilated patients in the USA showing unadjusted lower mortality with vitamin C, vitamin D, HCQ, and zinc treatment, statistically significant only for vitamin C.
Jul 17
2020
PrEPPEP Jolliffe et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.07.14.20152728 (Preprint) (meta analysis)
meta-analysis
Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of aggregate data from randomised controlled trials
Details   Meta analysis of 40 RCTs showing that vitamin D supplementation is safe and reduced risk of acute respiratory infections, odds ratio OR 0.89 [0.81-0.98].
Jun 30
2020
Levels Hamza et al., Pakistan Journal of Medical & Health Sciences (Peer Reviewed) Role of Vitamin D in Pathogenesis and Severity of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Infection
Details   Prospective study of 168 patients in Pakistan reporting an association between vitamin D deficiency and symptomatic cases. Details of the association are not provided.
Jun 30
2020
Levels Faul et al., Irish Medical Journal, 113:5, 84 (Peer Reviewed)
ventilation, ↓69.0%, p=0.03
Vitamin D Deficiency and ARDS after SARS-CoV-2 Infection
Details   Analysis of 33 hospitalized COVID-19 patients with respiratory failure requiring FiO2 greater than 0.4. Intubation hazard ratio for vitamin D sufficiency HR 0.31, p = 0.03.
Jun 30
2020
Levels Panagiotou et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.06.21.20136903 (Preprint)
ICU, ↓52.0%, p=0.02
Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels in patients hospitalised with COVID-19 are associated with greater disease severity: results of a local audit of practice
Details   Retrospective analysis 134 hospitalized patients. 19% of ICU patients had 25(OH)D levels > 50 nmol/L vs. 39.1% of non-ICU patients, p=0.02
Jun 27
2020
Levels Mendy et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.06.25.20137323 (Preprint)
death, ↓7.0%, p=0.89
Factors Associated with Hospitalization and Disease Severity in a Racially and Ethnically Diverse Population of COVID-19 Patients
Details   Retrospective 689 patients showing vitamin D deficiency associated with hospitalization and disease severity.
Jun 26
2020
Levels Whittemore et al., American Journal of Infection Control, doi:10.1016/j.ajic.2020.06.193 (Peer Reviewed) COVID-19 fatalities, latitude, sunlight, and vitamin D
Details   Analysis of 88 countries, showing a significant correlation between death rates and latitude, suggesting that sunlight exposure and vitamin D levels influence mortality.
Jun 24
2020
Review Andrade et al., SciELO preprints, doi:10.1590/SciELOPreprints.839 (Review) (Peer Reviewed)
review
Vitamin A and D deficiencies in the prognosis of respiratory tract infections: A systematic review with perspectives for COVID-19 and a critical analysis on supplementation
Details   Systematic review showing deficiencies of vitamins A and D negatively affecting the prognosis of respiratory tract infections.
Jun 22
2020
In Vitro Mok et al., bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.06.21.162396 (Preprint) (In Vitro)
in vitro
Calcitriol, the active form of vitamin D, is a promising candidate for COVID-19 prophylaxis
Details   In Vitro study showing that the active form of Vitamin D, calcitriol, exhibits significant potent activity against SARS-CoV-2.
Jun 19
2020
Levels Raisi-Estabragh et al., J. Public Health, doi:10.1093/pubmed/fdaa095 (Peer Reviewed) Greater risk of severe COVID-19 in Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic populations is not explained by cardiometabolic, socioeconomic or behavioural factors, or by 25(OH)-vitamin D status: study of 1326 cases from the UK Biobank
Details   UK Biobank retrospective not finding a significant association between vitamin D levels and the risk of PCR+ after adjustment. Since adjustment factors may be correlated with vitamin D deficiency, the extent of any causal contribution of ..
Jun 14
2020
Levels Rhodes et al., BMJ Nutr. Prev. Health, doi:10.1136/bmjnph-2020-000110 (Peer Reviewed) COVID-19 mortality increases with northerly latitude after adjustment for age suggesting a link with ultraviolet and vitamin D
Details   Analysis of COVID-19 mortality and latitude as of May 18, 2020, showing that latitude was significantly associated with mortality (p=0.031), with an estimated 4.4% [0.4%-8.5%] increase in mortality for each 1° further north.
Jun 13
2020
PrEPPEP Davies et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.05.01.20087965 (Preprint) Evidence Supports a Causal Role for Vitamin D Status in Global COVID-19 Outcomes
Details   Causal inference analysis of COVID-19 severity and latitude concluding that vitamin D status plays a key role in COVID-19 outcome.
Jun 10
2020
Late Tan et al., Nutrition, doi:10.1016/j.nut.2020.111017 (preprint 6/10/20) (Peer Reviewed)
oxygen, ↓80.5%, p=0.04
Cohort study to evaluate the effect of combination Vitamin D, Magnesium and Vitamin B12 (DMB) on progression to severe outcome in older COVID-19 patients
Details   Observational study of 43 patients >= 50 years old, with 17 patients receiving vitamin D, magnesium, and vitamin B12 (DMB); and 26 control patients, showing a significantly lower need for oxygen therapy and ICU admission with treatment. D..
May 27
2020
PrEPPEP Skutsch et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.05.25.20112805 (Preprint) The association of UV with rates of COVID-19 transmission and deaths in Mexico: the possible mediating role of vitamin D
Details   Analysis of UV, temperature, humidity and COVID-19 in 45 Mexican cities, showing that UV was negatively correlated with rates of transmission (statistically significant) and mortality (not statistically significant).
May 14
2020
Levels Chodick et al., Journal of Travel Medicine, doi:10.1093/jtm/taaa069 (Peer Reviewed) Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin-receptor blockers are not associated with increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection
Details   Retrospective 14,520 patients in Israel, 1,317 testing positive, showing no significant difference in vitamin D levels (23.6ng/mL and 24.1ng/mL for positive and negative cases respectively).
May 9
2020
Levels D'Avolio et al., Nutrients, 12:5, 1–7, doi:10.3390/nu12051359 (Peer Reviewed) 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are lower in patients with positive PCR for SARS-CoV-2
Details   Retrospective 107 patients in Switzerland showing lower vitamin D levels (11.1 ng/mL) in PCR positive patients compared with negative patients (24.6 ng/mL), p = 0.004.
Apr 28
2020
Levels Marik et al., Med Drug Discov., doi:10.1016/j.medidd.2020.100041 (Preprint) Does vitamin D status impact mortality from SARS-CoV-2 infection?
Details   Analysis of case fatality rates showing that the CFR was significantly greater for Northern states (>40° latitude) compared to Southern States (6.0% vs. 3.5%, p  < 0 .001), although there were some exceptions with individual states.
Apr 28
2020
Levels Lau et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.04.24.20075838 (Preprint)
ICU, ↓45.0%, p=0.29
Vitamin D Insufficiency is Prevalent in Severe COVID-19
Details   Analysis of 20 hospitalized COVID-19 patients, 13 requiring ICU admission. 84.6% of the ICU patients had low vitamin D levels versus 57.1% of the non-ICU patients.
Apr 2
2020
Review Grant et al., Nutrients, 12:4, 988, doi:10.3390/nu12040988 (Review) (Peer Reviewed)
review
Evidence that Vitamin D Supplementation Could Reduce Risk of Influenza and COVID-19 Infections and Deaths
Details   Review of the evidence that vitamin D supplementation could reduce COVID-19 risk.
2019
Review McCullough et al., The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2018.12.010 (Review) (Peer Reviewed)
review
Daily oral dosing of vitamin D3 using 5000 TO 50,000 international units a day in long-term hospitalized patients: Insights from a seven year experience
Details   Report on the long-term use of vitamin D in hospitalized patients with daily dosing from 5,000 to 50,000IU over 7 years. There were no cases of hypercalcemia or any adverse events related to vitamin D supplementation. Authors conclude tha..
2017
N/A Martineau et al., BMJ 2017, 356, doi:10.1136/bmj.i6583 (Peer Reviewed) (meta analysis)
cases, ↓7.3%, p=0.003
Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory tract infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data
Details   Meta analysis of 25 RCTs showing vitamin D supplementation was safe and it protected against acute respiratory tract infection overall. Patients who were very vitamin D deficient and those not receiving bolus doses experienced the most be..
2013
PrEPPEP Quraishi et al., JAMA Surgery, doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2013.3176 (Peer Reviewed) Association Between Preoperative 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Level and Hospital-Acquired Infections Following Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery
Details   Retrospective 770 gastric bypass surgery patients showing a strong relationship between pre-operative vitamin D levels and the risk of hospital acquired infections.