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Vitamin D COVID-19 studies. Sufficiency studies analyze outcomes based on vitamin D levels, confounding factors may be significant. Treatment studies directly analyze the effect of vitamin D treatment. vitamind4all.org provides treatment recommendations. Acute treatment shows greater efficacy than chronic prophylaxis, long-term supplementation may not be ideal. Recent:
Karonova
Kumar
Annweiler
Galmés
Mariani
Kazemi
Fiore.
Vitamin D has been officially adopted for early treatment in all or part of 3 countries. Submit updates/corrections.
Jun 23
Early, Late, PrEP, PEP Covid Analysis (Preprint) (meta analysis)
meta-analysis v178
Vitamin D for COVID-19: real-time meta analysis of 208 studies
Details   • Statistically significant improvements are seen in treatment studies for mortality, ventilation, ICU admission, hospitalization, and cases. 37 studies from 34 independent teams in 16 different countries show statistically significant im..
Jun 23
Late Karonova et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu14132602
ICU, ↓85.9%, p=0.11
Effect of Cholecalciferol Supplementation on the Clinical Features and Inflammatory Markers in Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients: A Randomized, Open-Label, Single-Center Study
Details   RCT with 56 cholecalciferol and 54 control hospitalized patients with vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency in Russia, showing positive effects on immune status. The median age in the treatment group was 7 years lower and deficiency was l..
May 31
Early Annweiler et al., PLoS Medicine, doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1003999
death, ↓30.0%, p=0.29
High-dose versus standard-dose vitamin D supplementation in older adults with COVID- 19 (COVIT-TRIAL): A multicenter, open-label, randomized controlled superiority trial
Details   RCT comparing single dose 400,000IU and single dose 50,000IU vitamin D in France, showing lower mortality with the higher dose, statistically significant only at day 14. The aHR for days 0-5 was 1.30 [0.31-5.35], compared to 0.11 [0.02-0...
May 30
Early Kumar et al., Cureus, doi:10.7759/cureus.25467
no recov., ↓89.2%, p=0.05
Efficacy and Safety of Aspirin, Promethazine, and Micronutrients for Rapid Clinical Recovery in Mild to Moderate COVID-19 Patients: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial
Details   RCT 260 patients in India, 130 treated with aspirin, promethazine, vitamin C, D, B3, zinc, and selenium, showing faster recovery with treatment. There was no hospitalization, ICU admission, or supplemental oxygen requirements in either gr..
May 27
PrEPPEP Galmés et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu14112254 Suboptimal Consumption of Relevant Immune System Micronutrients Is Associated with a Worse Impact of COVID-19 in Spanish Populations
Details   Ecological study in Spain, showing lower intake of vitamin D, A, B9, and zinc in regions with the highest COVID-19 incidence and mortality. Vitamin D intake was associated with lower prevalence, incidence, and a combined incidence+mortali..
May 27
Late Mariani et al., PLOS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0267918
death, ↑124.0%, p=0.45
High-dose vitamin D versus placebo to prevent complications in COVID-19 patients: Multicentre randomized controlled clinical trial
Details   Late stage RCT with 115 patients treated with a single dose of 500,000IU cholecalciferol and 103 placebo patients, showing no significant differences. Authors do not explain why they did very late treatment with cholecalciferol instead of..
May 22
Late Fiore et al., Healthcare, doi:10.3390/healthcare10050956
death, ↓92.7%, p=0.01
Effectiveness of Vitamin D Supplements among Patients Hospitalized for COVID-19: Results from a Monocentric Matched-Cohort Study
Details   Retrospective 116 patients with D levels < 30ng/mL, 58 treated with vitamin D 100,000IU daily for two days, and 58 matched controls, showing significantly lower mortality with treatment.
May 20
PrEPPEP Hosseini et al., NCT04483635 (Preprint)
cases, ↓68.8%, p=0.45
Prevention of COVID-19 with Oral Vitamin D Supplemental Therapy in Essential healthCare Teams (PROTECT): Ancillary Study of a Randomized Controlled Trial
Details   Early terminated prophylaxis RCT for healthcare workers in Canada, showing 0/18 cases with vitamin D prophylaxis vs. 1/15 for control. Results are published in . 100,000IU cholecalciferol at baseline, 10,000IU weekly for 16 weeks.
May 20
Meta Hosseini et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu14102134 (meta analysis)
death, ↓54.0%, p=0.0004
Effects of Vitamin D Supplementation on COVID-19 Related Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Details   Systematic review and meta analysis showing significantly lower ICU admission and mortality with vitamin D treatment. There was no significant difference for cases.
May 16
Levels Ozturk et al., Bratislava Medical Journal, doi:10.4149/BLL_2022_065
severe case, ↓46.4%, p=0.10
Is there a relationship between vitamin D levels, inflammatory parameters, and clinical severity of COVID-19 infection?
Details   Retrospective 300 hospitalized patients in Turkey with vitamin D levels measured with 6 months before admission, showing no significant difference in severity based on vitamin D deficiency.
May 13
Late Zangeneh et al., Obesity Medicine, doi:10.1016/j.obmed.2022.100420
death, ↑26.0%, p=0.40
Survival analysis based on body mass index in patients with Covid-19 admitted to the intensive care unit of Amir Al-Momenin Hospital in Arak – 2021
Details   Retrospective 193 ICU patients in Iran, showing no significant difference with vitamin D treatment.
May 13
Levels Galluzzo et al., Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, doi:10.1016/j.mad.2022.111684 Association between vitamin D status and physical performance in COVID-19 survivors: Results from the Gemelli against COVID-19 post-acute care project
Details   Analysis of 681 COVID-19 survivors in Italy, showing a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency. Low vitamin D levels were associated with poor physical performance, and were more common in patients that had been hospitalized.
May 11
PrEPPEP Jabeen et al., Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, doi:10.53350/pjmhs221631053
symp. case, ↓88.9%, p=0.11
Protective Effect of Vitamin-D Supplementation in Patients of Acute Coronary Syndrome During COVID-19 Pandemic
Details   Prospective study of 40 acute coronary syndrome patients in Pakistan, 20 given a single dose of 200,000IU vitamin D, showing lower incidence of COVID-19 in the following 2 months.
May 7
Levels Kazemi et al., BMC Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1186/s12879-022-07438-8
death, ↓75.8%, p=0.26
Comparison of the cardiovascular system, clinical condition, and laboratory results in COVID-19 patients with and without vitamin D insufficiency
Details   Retrospective 202 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Iran, showing no significant difference in outcomes based on vitamin D levels.
May 5
Levels Charkowick et al., AJRCCM Conference
death, ↓73.4%, p=0.02
Vitamin D Deficiency and Thrombosis in Hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 Patients with Suspected Pulmonary Embolism
Details   Retrospective 208 hospitalized COVID+ patients in the USA, showing vitamin D deficiency associated with higher mortality and ICU admission.
May 3
Levels Nguyen et al., PLOS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0268038
death, ↓81.1%, p=0.008
25-hydroxyvitamin D is a predictor of COVID-19 severity of hospitalized patients
Details   Retrospective 88 COVID-19 hospitalized patients and 122 controls, showing higher mortality, ventilation, and length of stay with vitamin D deficiency.
May 1
Early Khan et al., Frontiers in Pharmacology
no recov., ↓33.3%, p=0.15
Oral co-supplementation of curcumin, quercetin and vitamin D3 as adjuvant therapy for mild to moderate symptoms of COVID-19 -Results from an open-label, pilot randomized controlled trial
Details   RCT 50 COVID+ outpatients in Pakistan, 25 treated with curcumin, quercetin, and vitamin D, showing significantly faster viral clearance, significantly improved CRP, and faster resolution of acute symptoms (p=0.154). Only the abstract is c..
Apr 30
Levels Voelkle et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu14091862
death/ICU, ↓23.4%, p=0.55
Prevalence of Micronutrient Deficiencies in Patients Hospitalized with COVID-19: An Observational Cohort Study
Details   Prospective study of 57 consecutive hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Switzerland, showing higher risk of mortality/ICU admission with vitamin A, vitamin D, and zinc deficiency, with statistical significance only for vitamin A and zinc. A..
Apr 20
In Silico Pandya et al., Informatics in Medicine Unlocked, doi:10.1016/j.imu.2022.100951
In Silico
Unravelling Vitamin B12 as a potential inhibitor against SARS-CoV-2: A computational approach
Details   In Silico study showing significant interaction with SARS-CoV-2 targets for multiple vitamins.
Apr 20
Levels Karimian et al., European Journal of Translational Myology, doi:10.4081/ejtm.2022.10453 Association of vitamin D and severity of COVID-19 in children
Details   Analysis of 99 pediatric COVID-19 cases in Iran, mean age 2.9, showing severity associated with vitamin D levels.
Apr 18
PrEPPEP Villasis-Keever et al., Archives of Medical Research, doi:10.1016/j.arcmed.2022.04.003
hosp., ↓66.5%, p=1.00
Efficacy and Safety of Vitamin D Supplementation to Prevent COVID-19 in Frontline Healthcare Workers. A Randomized Clinical Trial
Details   RCT 321 healthcare workers in Mexico, showing significantly lower SARS-CoV-2 infection with vitamin D prophylaxis. 4,000IU daily for 30 days. In comparison to , this study used a higher dose, the participants had much higher exposure to S..
Apr 14
Late Torres et al., Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, doi:10.1016/j.biopha.2022.112965
death, ↑7.3%, p=1.00
Changes in the immune response against SARS-CoV-2 in individuals with severe COVID-19 treated with high dose of vitamin D
Details   RCT comparing 41 patients treated with 10,000IU/day cholecalciferol and 44 treated with 2,000IU/day in Spain, showing significantly shorter hospitalization for ARDS patients with the higher dose. There was also an increase of anti-inflamm..
Apr 14
PrEPPEP Parant et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu14081641
death, ↓50.5%, p=0.11
Vitamin D and COVID-19 Severity in Hospitalized Older Patients: Potential Benefit of Prehospital Vitamin D Supplementation
Details   Retrospective 228 hospitalized COVID-19 patients, median age 78, showing significantly lower risk of ICU admission and severe cases with vitamin D prophylaxis. NCT04877509.
Apr 9
Levels Takase et al., Clinical Nutrition ESPEN, doi:10.1016/j.clnesp.2022.04.003 Association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and COVID-19 severity
Details   Retrospective 117 consecutive COVID+ hospitalized patients in Japan, showing lower vitamin D levels associated with mechanical ventilation or mortality.
Apr 5
Levels Latifi-Pupovci et al., Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-022-09785-7 Relationship of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies with Vitamin D and inflammatory markers in COVID-19 patients
Details   Prospective study of 69 COVID+ patients in Kosovo, showing lower vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 severity.
Mar 31
Levels Martínez-Rodríguez et al., Gaceta Médica de México, doi:10.24875/GMM.M22000637
death, ↓52.2%, p=0.04
Evaluation of the usefulness of vitamin D as a predictor of mortality in patients with COVID-19
Details   Retrospective 154 consecutive COVID-19 patients in Mexico, showing low vitamin D levels associated with higher mortality.
Mar 26
Levels Ferrer-Sánchez et al., International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, doi:10.3390/ijerph19073965
ICU, ↓81.8%, p=1.00
Serum 25(OH) Vitamin D Levels in Pregnant Women with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Case-Control Study
Details   Retrospective 256 pregnant women, 82 with COVID-19 and 174 controls, showing significantly lower vitamin D levels for COVID-19 patients.
Mar 23
Levels Ghanei et al., European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, doi:10.1038/s41430-022-01095-5
cases, ↓42.1%, p=0.09
Low serum levels of zinc and 25-hydroxyvitmain D as potential risk factors for COVID-19 susceptibility: a pilot case-control study
Details   Case control study with 90 COVID-19 cases and 95 matched controls in Iran, showing significantly lower vitamin D levels for cases.
Mar 23
PrEPPEP Jolliffe et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2022.03.22.22271707 (Preprint)
ventilation, ↑94.7%, p=1.00
Vitamin D Supplements for Prevention of Covid-19 or other Acute Respiratory Infections: a Phase 3 Randomized Controlled Trial (CORONAVIT)
Details   RCT 5,979 low risk patients (0 COVID-19 deaths) in the UK, showing no significant differences with vitamin D prophylaxis. CORONAVIT. NCT04579640. For more discussion see [ reddit.com , twitter.com ] . Authors do not provide exact start/en..
Mar 16
Levels Pande et al., Journal of Communicable Diseases, doi:10.24321/0019.5138.202227
severe case, ↓93.4%, p<0.0001
Vitamin D Levels and its Association with Inflammatory Markers, Severity and Outcome in Hospitalised COVID-19 Patients - An Indian Perspective
Details   Retrospective 209 hospitalized patients in India, showing vitamin D deficiency associated with COVID-19 severity.
Mar 10
Review DiGuilio et al., International Journal of Molecular Sciences, doi:10.3390/ijms23062995 (Review)
review
Micronutrient Improvement of Epithelial Barrier Function in Various Disease States: A Case for Adjuvant Therapy
Details   Review of epithelial and endothelial barrier compromise and associated disease risk including COVID-19, and the potential benefits of vitamin A, vitamin D, and zinc for improving barrier function.
Mar 7
Late Wadi Al Ramahi et al., The International Arabic Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, doi:10.3823/862 The Effect of Vitamin D treatment on COVID 19- Patients, an Inverted Propensity Score Weighting (IPSW), and Inverted Probability of Treatment Weighting (IPTW) Analyzed Study
Details   Retrospective study comparing 847 patients receiving ≤149,000IU vitamin D and 170 receiving ≥150,000IU, showing no significant differences, however the result may not be very meaningful - membership in the higher cumulative dose group req..
Mar 2
Levels Karonova et al., Pharmaceuticals, doi:10.3390/ph15030305
severe case, ↓22.5%, p=0.01
Vitamin D Status and Immune Response in Hospitalized Patients with Moderate and Severe COVID-19
Details   Retrospective 331 hospitalized patients in Russia, showing lower risk of severe cases with higher vitamin D levels.
Feb 28
PrEPPEP Shehab et al., Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, doi:10.4314/tjpr.v21i2.13
severe case, ↓45.7%, p=0.20
Immune-boosting effect of natural remedies and supplements on progress of, and recovery from COVID-19 infection
Details   Retrospective survey-based analysis of 349 COVID-19 patients, showing a lower risk of severe cases with vitamin D, zinc, turmeric, and honey prophylaxis in unadjusted analysis, without statistical significance. REC/UG/2020/03.
Feb 28
PrEPPEP Nimer et al., Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences, doi:10.17305/bjbms.2021.7009
hosp., ↓33.3%, p=0.001
The impact of vitamin and mineral supplements usage prior to COVID-19 infection on disease severity and hospitalization
Details   Retrospective survey based analysis of 2,148 COVID-19 recovered patients in Jordan, showing lower risk of severity and hospitalization with vitamin D prophylaxis.
Feb 24
Levels Rodríguez-Vidales et al., Nutrición Hospitalaria, doi:10.20960/nh.03731
severe case, ↓38.9%, p=0.21
Severe COVID-19 patients have severe vitamin D deficiency in Northeast Mexico
Details   Retrospective 181 diagnostic center patients and 116 ICU patients in Mexico, showing higher risk of severity with vitamin D levels <10ng/mL.
Feb 24
Review Kory et al., Journal of Clinical Medicine Research, doi:10.14740/jocmr4658 (Review)
review
“MATH+” Multi-Modal Hospital Treatment Protocol for COVID-19 Infection: Clinical and Scientific Rationale
Details   Review of the data supporting the MATH+ hospital treatment protocol for COVID-19.
Feb 22
Levels Tylicki et al., Viruses, doi:10.3390/v14030451
severe case, ↓45.4%, p=0.02
Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors May Increase While Active Vitamin D May Decrease the Risk of Severe Pneumonia in SARS-CoV-2 Infected Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease on Maintenance Hemodialysis
Details   Retrospective 85 COVID+ hemodialysis patients in Poland, showing lower severity with existing vitamin D use. Patients in this study are also analyzed in .
Feb 21
Levels Saeed et al., The Egyptian Journal of Internal Medicine, doi:10.1186/s43162-022-00116-w Cholecalciferol level and its impact on COVID-19 patients
Details   Prospective study of 414 COVID+ ICU patients in Egypt, showing mortality associated with lower vitamin D levels.
Feb 19
Levels Zidrou et al., Cureus, doi:10.7759/cureus.22385
death, ↓26.4%, p=1.00
The Relationship Between Vitamin D Status and the Clinical Severity of COVID-19 Infection: A Retrospective Single-Center Analysis
Details   Retrospective 71 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Greece with vitamin D levels measured within 48 hours of admission, showing longer hospitalization, more radiographic findings, and higher inflammatory and cellular damage markers with vi..
Feb 19
Levels Sanson et al., Irish Journal of Medical Science (1971 -), doi:10.1007/s11845-022-02952-9
death/vent., ↓64.0%, p=0.03
A combined role for low vitamin D and low albumin circulating levels as strong predictors of worse outcome in COVID-19 patients
Details   Prospective study of 69 hospitalized COVID-19 pneumonia patients, showing higher risk of combined NIV/IMV/60-day death with low vitamin D levels.
Feb 18
Late Cannata-Andía et al., BMC Medicine, doi:10.1186/s12916-022-02290-8
death, ↑44.0%, p=0.31
A single-oral bolus of 100,000 IU of cholecalciferol at hospital admission did not improve outcomes in the COVID-19 disease: the COVID-VIT-D — a randomised multicentre international clinical trial
Details   RCT 274 very late stage (>80% pulmonary involvement at baseline) hospitalized COVID-19 patients treated with a single dose of cholecalciferol, and 269 control patients, showing no significant differences. High serum calcidiol levels at ad..
Feb 17
PrEPPEP Junior et al., BMC Geriatrics, doi:10.1186/s12877-022-02776-3
death, ↓22.1%, p=0.61
Chronic diseases, chest computed tomography, and laboratory tests as predictors of severe respiratory failure and death in elderly Brazilian patients hospitalized with COVID-19: a prospective cohort study
Details   Prospective study of 201 COVID+ hospitalized adults in Brazil, mean age 73, showing a lower risk of mortality and respiratory failure with vitamin D supplementation in unadjusted results, without statistical significance, and a higher ris..
Feb 15
Meta Shah et al., QJM: An International Journal of Medicine, doi:10.1093/qjmed/hcac040 (meta analysis)
death, ↓52.1%, p<0.0001
Does vitamin D supplementation reduce COVID-19 severity? - a systematic review
Details   Meta-analysis of seven systematic reviews showing that vitamin D supplementation reduces the risk of COVID-19 mortality, ventilation, and ICU admission. Authors note that oral and IV supplements were well tolerated, safe, and effective.
Feb 8
Levels Bushnaq et al., International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, doi:10.3390/ijerph19031901
ventilation, ↓32.1%, p=0.27
The Impact of Vitamin D Status on COVID-19 Severity among Hospitalized Patients in the Western Region of Saudi Arabia: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study
Details   Retrospective 197 hospitalized patients in Saudi Arabia, showing no significant differences based on vitamin D levels. Adjusted results are provided only for vitamin D as a continuous variable.
Feb 5
Late Bishop et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2022.01.31.22270036 (Preprint)
no recov., ↓33.7%, p=0.56
Results From the REsCue Trial: A Randomized Controlled Trial with Extended-Release Calcifediol in Symptomatic Outpatients with COVID-19
Details   Small RCT with low-risk patients in Florida, USA, showing no significant differences in overall recovery. Minimal details on outcomes are provided in the preprint. Authors note significantly faster resolution of respiratory symptoms when ..
Feb 2
Review Grant et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu14030639 A Narrative Review of the Evidence for Variations in Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration Thresholds for Optimal Health
Details   Review of the benefits of vitamin D for cardiovascular disease, hypertension, cancer, type 2 diabetes, and COVID-19. Authors conclude that optimal levels are above 30ng/mL for cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality, whereas the th..
Jan 31
PrEPPEP Levy et al., Gerontology, doi:10.1159/000521412
death/hosp., ↓30.0%, p=0.05
Frail Older Adults with Presymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 Infection: Clinical Course and Prognosis
Details   Retrospective 849 COVID-19+ patients in skilled nursing homes, showing lower risk of combined hospitalization/death with vitamin D prophylaxis, very close to statistical significance.
Jan 31
PrEPPEP Subramanian et al., The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, doi:10.1093/ajcn/nqac027
death, ↓27.3%, p=0.12
Vitamin D, D-binding protein, free vitamin D and COVID-19 mortality in hospitalized patients
Details   Retrospective 427 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in the United Kingdom, showing lower mortality with vitamin D supplementation (p=0.12), and higher mortality with both low and high vitamin D levels compared to a reference range of 50-74 n..
Jan 29
PrEPPEP Mohajeri et al., Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, doi:10.3233/MNM-211521 The difference in the dietary inflammatory index, functional food, and antioxidants intake between COVID -19 patients and healthy persons
Details   Retrospective dietary survey analysis of 500 COVID-19 patients and 500 healthy matched controls in Iran, showing that COVID-19 patients had lower daily consumption of vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E, zinc, and selenium. IR.ARUMS.REC.1400...
Jan 27
Levels Schmitt et al., Journal of Medical Virology, doi:10.1002/jmv.27606 Oxidative stress status and vitamin D levels of asymptomatic to mild symptomatic COVID-19 infections during the third trimester of pregnancy: A retrospective study in Metz, France
Details   Retrospective 15 COVID+ pregnant women and 20 healthy controls in France, showing that all COVID+ patients were vitamin D deficient, and vitamin D levels were significantly lower in symptomatic patients compared to controls or asymptomati..
Jan 24
PrEPPEP Karonova et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu14030505
symp. case, ↓94.6%, p=0.002
Vitamin D Intake May Reduce SARS-CoV-2 Infection Morbidity in Health Care Workers
Details   Small RCT in Russia with 45 high dose vitamin D patients (50,000IU/wk for 2 wks followed by 5,000IU/day) and 46 low dose patients (2,000IU/day), showing lower cases and lower symptomatic cases with high dose treatment.
Jan 24
Levels Saponaro et al., Frontiers in Immunology, doi:10.3389/fimmu.2021.745713
ARDS, ↓36.5%, p=0.43
Is There a Crucial Link Between Vitamin D Status and Inflammatory Response in Patients With COVID-19?
Details   Retrospective 93 COVID-19 pneumonia patients in Italy, showing low vitamin D levels associated with severe ARDS, and significantly lower vitamin D levels for non-survivors.
Jan 22
Levels Juraj et al., International Journal of Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2022.01.044
death, ↓19.0%, p=0.05
COVID-19 pneumonia patients with 25(OH)D levels lower than 12 ng/ml are at increased risk of death
Details   Retrospective 357 COVID-19 pneumonia patients in Slovakia, showing higher mortality with vitamin D deficiency (<12ng/mL). All patients received vitamin D supplementation in hospital. In multivariable linear regression, vitamin D levels we..
Jan 15
Levels Soltani-Zangbar et al., Gene Reports, doi:10.1016/j.genrep.2022.101509 Serum levels of vitamin D and immune system function in patients with COVID-19 admitted to intensive care unit
Details   Analysis of 50 COVID-19 ICU patients and 50 healthy controls in Iran, showing significantly lower vitamin D levels in COVID-19 patients.
Jan 6
PrEPPEP Tylicki et al., Journal of Clinical Medicine, doi:10.3390/jcm11020285
death, ↓14.4%, p=0.61
Predictors of Mortality in Hemodialyzed Patients after SARS-CoV-2 Infection
Details   Retrospective 133 COVID+ hemodialysis patients in Poland, showing lower mortality with existing vitamin D use, without statistical significance.
Jan 1
Levels Seal et al., Journal of General Internal Medicine, doi:10.1007/s11606-021-07170-0
death, ↓45.1%, p=0.001
Association of Vitamin D Status and COVID-19-Related Hospitalization and Mortality
Details   Retrospective 4,599 COVID+ veterans in the USA with vitamin D levels measured 15 to 90 days prior to testing positive, showing a significant independent inverse dose-response relationship between vitamin D levels (from 15 to 60ng/mL) and ..
Jan 1
Late Bilir et al., Journal of Contemporary Medicine, doi:10.16899/jcm.990057
death, ↓23.1%, p=0.26
Does Vitamin D Supplementation Reduce Cytokine Storm and Mortality in Geriatric Intensive Care Patients Diagnosed with COVID-19
Details   Retrospective 80 elderly ICU patients in Turkey, 40 with vitamin D levels <30ng/ml received vitamin D treatment, showing no significant differences in outcomes. Although not statistically significant, results favored treatment which sugge..
Dec 31
2021
Levels Jabbar et al., Nat. Volatiles & Essent. Oils, 8:4 Vitamin D Serum Levels and Its Association With COVID 19 Infection In Babylon Governorate, Iraq
Details   Analysis of 120 COVID-19 and 120 control patients in Iraq, showing significantly lower vitamin D levels for COVID-19 patients.
Dec 31
2021
Early Efird et al., International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, doi:10.3390/ijerph19010447
death, ↓48.9%, p=0.10
The Interaction of Vitamin D and Corticosteroids: A Mortality Analysis of 26,508 Veterans Who Tested Positive for SARS-CoV-2
Details   Retrospective 26,508 COVID+ veterans in USA, showing lower mortality with vitamin D use after testing positive (defined as being administered ≥7 days or half of the survival time within 2 weeks after testing), with statistical significanc..
Dec 29
2021
PrEPPEP Mahmood et al., European Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, doi:10.24018/ejmed.2021.3.6.1159
death, ↓9.4%, p=0.67
Coronavirus in HIP Fractures CHIP 2: Is Vitamin D Deficiency Associated with Increased Mortality from COVID-19 Infections in A Hip Fracture Population?
Details   Retrospective 517 hip fracture patients in the UK with vitamin D levels measured during COVID-19 admission, not showing significant differences in mortality for supplementation in unadjusted analysis with no group details and subject to c..
Dec 28
2021
Late Baguma et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-1193578/v1 (Preprint)
death, ↓96.7%, p=0.02
Characteristics of the COVID-19 patients treated at Gulu Regional Referral Hospital, Northern Uganda: A cross-sectional study
Details   Retrospective COVID+ hospitalized patients in Uganda, 23 patients receiving vitamin D treatment, showing significantly lower mortality with treatment.
Dec 22
2021
Meta Chiodini et al., Frontiers in Public Health, doi:10.3389/fpubh.2021.736665
meta-analysis
Vitamin D Status and SARS-CoV-2 Infection and COVID-19 Clinical Outcomes
Details   Meta analysis concluding that "patients with low vitamin D levels present an increased risk of ARDS requiring admission to intensive care unit (ICU) or mortality due to SARS-CoV-2 infection and a higher susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 i..
Dec 10
2021
Levels Putra et al., European Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, doi:10.24018/ejmed.2021.3.6.1131
hosp., ↓25.6%, p=0.59
Vitamin D Levels among Hospitalized and Non-Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients in Dr. M. Djamil General Hospital Padang
Details   Case control study in Indonesia with 31 moderate to critical hospitalized COVID-19 patients, and 31 asymptomatic or mild non-hospitalized COVID-19 patients, showing lower vitamin D levels in the hospitalized patients, without reaching sta..
Dec 3
2021
PrEPPEP Ma et al., The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, doi:10.1093/ajcn/nqab389
hosp., ↓49.0%, p=0.04
Associations between predicted vitamin D status, vitamin D intake, and risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and Coronavirus Disease 2019 severity
Details   Analysis of 39,915 patients with 1,768 COVID+ cases based on surveys in the Nurses' Health Study II, showing higher predicted vitamin D levels associated with lower risk of COVID-19 cases. There was significantly lower risk of hospitaliza..
Nov 30
2021
Levels Fatemi et al., Acute and Critical Care, doi:10.4266/acc.2021.00605
death, ↓42.0%, p=0.07
Association of vitamin D deficiency with COVID-19 severity and mortality in Iranian people: a prospective observational study
Details   Prospective study of 248 hospitalized COVID+ patients in Iran with vitamin D levels measured in the previous year and again at admission, showing vitamin D status associated with severity and mortality.
Nov 30
2021
Levels Kaur et al., Indian Journal of Clinical Practice, 32:6
death, ↓89.8%, p<0.0001
Correlation of Vitamin D Levels with COVID-19 Severity and Outcome
Details   Prospective study of 81 hospitalized COVID+ patients in India, showing low vitamin D levels associated with COVID-19 severity and mortality.
Nov 29
2021
Levels Ranjbar et al., Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, doi:10.4103/jrms.JRMS_1151_20
death, ↓41.9%, p=0.07
Serum level of Vitamin D is associated with COVID-19 mortality rate in hospitalized patients
Details   Retrospective 317 COVID-19 hospitalized patients in Iran, showing mortality associated with lower vitamin D levels.
Nov 24
2021
Levels Jenei et al., Clinical Nutrition ESPEN, doi:10.1016/j.clnesp.2021.11.025 COVID-19 mortality is associated with low Vitamin D levels in patients with risk factors and/or advanced age
Details   Retrospective 257 hospitalized patients in Hungary, showing mortality associated with lower vitamin D levels for all patients, for patients >60, and for age-matched patients with risk factors or age >60. The non-age-matched analyses are c..
Nov 23
2021
Levels Ahmed et al., BioMed Research International, doi:10.1155/2021/1676914 Factors Affecting the Incidence, Progression, and Severity of COVID-19 in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Details   Retrospective type 1 diabetes patients in Saudi Arabia showing that mean vitamin D levels were significantly lower in type 1 diabetes patients with COVID-19 than in type 1 diabetes patients without COVID-19, or in a control group of patie..
Nov 23
2021
Levels Seven et al., The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, doi:10.1080/14767058.2021.2005564
severe case, ↓46.5%, p=0.006
Correlation between 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels and COVID-19 severity in pregnant women: a cross-sectional study
Details   Prospective study of 403 pregnant COVID+ hospitalized women in Turkey, showing higher risk of severe disease or poor prognostic factors with vitamin D deficiency.
Nov 21
2021
PrEPPEP Ahmed et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.11.18.21266489 (Preprint)
death, ↓10.5%, p=0.28
Causal Inference and COVID-19 Nursing Home Patients: Identifying Factors That Reduced Mortality Risk
Details   Retrospective causal inference analysis of 4,091 COVID+ long-term care high risk patients in the USA, showing lower mortality with vitamin D, without statistical significance.
Nov 21
2021
Levels Asgari et al., Acta Medica Iranica, doi:10.18502/acta.v59i11.7779
death, ↓72.5%, p=0.03
Vitamin D Insufficiency in Disease Severity and Prognosis of the Patients With SARS Corona Virus-2 Infection
Details   Retrospective 98 moderate/severe hospitalized COVID-19+ patients in Iran, showing significantly increased risk of mortality and severity with vitamin D deficiency. IR.AJAUMS.REC.1399.060.
Nov 15
2021
Levels Ramos et al., Global Journal of Health Science, doi:10.5539/gjhs.v14n1p1
cases, ↓45.7%, p=0.16
Vitamin D, Zinc and Iron in Adult Patients with Covid-19 and Their Action in the Immune Response as Biomarkers
Details   Retrospective 13 COVID-19 patients and 7 controls in Brazil, showing higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency for COVID-19 cases, without statistical significance.
Nov 14
2021
Late Beigmohammadi et al., Trials, doi:10.1186/s13063-021-05795-4
death, ↓88.9%, p=0.11
The effect of supplementation with vitamins A, B, C, D, and E on disease severity and inflammatory responses in patients with COVID-19: a randomized clinical trial
Details   Small RCT 60 ICU patients in Iran, 30 treated with vitamins A, B, C, D, and E, showing significant improvement in SOFA score and several inflammatory markers at day 7 with treatment. 5,000 IU vitamin A daily, 600,000 IU vitamin D once, 30..
Nov 12
2021
Levels Sacristán et al., Transplantation Proceedings, doi:10.1016/j.transproceed.2021.08.060 Risk of severe COVID-19 infection in kidney transplant recipients
Details   Retrospective 63 COVID+ kidney transplant recipients, showing significantly lower vitamin D levels before infection in patients requiring ICU admission.
Nov 12
2021
Levels Gönen et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13114047
death, ↓65.8%, p=0.62
Rapid and Effective Vitamin D Supplementation May Present Better Clinical Outcomes in COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) Patients by Altering Serum INOS1, IL1B, IFNg, Cathelicidin-LL37, and ICAM1
Details   Retrospective 867 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Turkey, showing worse outcomes with vitamin D deficiency (without statistical significance); followed by a prospective study of 210 patients with vitamin D supplementation for those that..
Nov 10
2021
Levels Asghar et al., Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., doi:10.4269/ajtmh.21-0577
death, ↓53.1%, p=0.046
Evaluation of Vitamin-D Status and Its Association with Clinical Outcomes Among COVID-19 Patients in Pakistan
Details   Retrospective 91 hospitalized patients in Pakistan, showing vitamin D deficiency associated with mortality in multivariate Cox regression.
Nov 3
2021
Levels Gallelli et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13113932 Vitamin D Serum Levels in Subjects Tested for SARS-CoV-2: What Are the Differences among Acute, Healed, and Negative COVID-19 Patients? A Multicenter Real-Practice Study
Details   Analysis of 117 patients in Italy, showing COVID-19 patients had significantly lower vitamin D levels than control patients.
Nov 2
2021
Levels Atanasovska et al., Redox Report, doi:10.1080/13510002.2021.1999126
death, ↓40.7%, p=0.68
Vitamin D levels and oxidative stress markers in patients hospitalized with COVID-19
Details   Retrospective 33 COVID-19 hospitalized patients in North Macedonia, showing significantly lower vitamin D levels for severe vs. moderate cases. Oxidative stress was also higher for vitamin D insufficient patients.
Oct 25
2021
Late Leal-Martínez et al., International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, doi:10.3390/ijerph19031172 (preprint 10/25/2021)
death, ↓85.7%, p=0.03
Effect of a Nutritional Support System to Increase Survival and Reduce Mortality in Patients with COVID-19 in Stage III and Comorbidities: A Blinded Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial
Details   80 patient RCT with 40 patients treated with a comprehensive regimen of nutritional support, showing significantly lower mortality with treatment. Treatment contained cholecalciferol, vitamin C, zinc, spirulina maxima, folic acid, glutami..
Oct 22
2021
Levels Hurst et al., BMJ Open, doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2021-055435
death, ↓68.4%, p=0.005
Vitamin D insufficiency in COVID-19 and influenza A, and critical illness survivors: a cross-sectional study
Details   Analysis of 259 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in the UK, showing a majority of patients had vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency, which was associated with poor outcomes. Both free and total 25(OH)D were analyzed with consistent results...
Oct 20
2021
Levels Al-Anouti et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13113680
severe case, ↓68.1%, p=0.0007
Associations between Genetic Variants in the Vitamin D Metabolism Pathway and Severity of COVID-19 among UAE Residents
Details   Retrospective 646 COVID-19 patients in the UAE, showing significant associations between genetic determinants of vitamin D metabolism and COVID-19 severity, and an association with vitamin D deficiency and COVID-19 severity. Patients in t..
Oct 15
2021
Levels Ramirez-Sandoval et al., Archives of Medical Research, doi:10.1016/j.arcmed.2021.09.006
death, ↓31.5%, p<0.0001
Very Low Vitamin D Levels are a Strong Independent Predictor of Mortality in Hospitalized Patients with Severe COVID-19
Details   Retrospective 2,908 hospitalized patients in Mexico with vitamin D levels measured on admission, showing significantly lower mortality for patients without vitamin D deficiency.
Oct 13
2021
Late Maghbooli et al., Endocrine Practice, doi:10.1016/j.eprac.2021.09.016
death, ↓40.0%, p=0.72
Treatment with 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (calcifediol) is associated with a reduction in the blood neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio marker of disease severity in patients hospitalized with COVID-19: a pilot, multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled double blind clinical trial
Details   RCT 106 hospitalized patients with vitamin D levels <30ng/ml in Iran, 53 treated with calcifediol, showing that treatment was able to correct vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency, resulting in improved immune system function. Hospitalizatio..
Oct 12
2021
Levels Afaghi et al., The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine, doi:10.1620/tjem.255.127
death, ↓55.0%, p=0.002
Prevalence and Clinical Outcomes of Vitamin D Deficiency in COVID-19 Hospitalized Patients: A Retrospective Single-Center Analysis
Details   Retrospective 646 COVID-19+ hospitalized patients in Iran, showing higher mortality with vitamin D deficiency.
Oct 12
2021
PrEP, Early Worcel et al., Annals of Palliative Medicine, doi:10.21037/apm-21-1707 Low mortality from COVID-19 at a nursing facility in France following a combined preventive and active treatment protocol
Details   Report on the relatively low mortality and relatively mild COVID-19 symptoms at a French nursing facility that has adopted several treatments including vitamin D, zinc, anticoagulants, corticosteroids, and a multivitamin.
Oct 9
2021
Late Caballero-García et al., Medicina, doi:10.3390/medicina57101079 Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Muscle Status in Old Patients Recovering from COVID-19 Infection
Details   Small RCT with 30 patients examining the effect of vitamin D supplementation on muscle status in elderly recovering COVID-19 patients, showing serum creatine kinase levels returned to optimal values, however there was no significant diffe..
Oct 5
2021
Levels Mukherjee et al., FEBS Open Bio, doi:10.1002/2211-5463.13309 Seasonal UV exposure and vitamin D: Association with the dynamics of COVID-19 transmission in Europe
Details   Analysis of UV and temperature levels in 26 European countries, showing that low temperature, UV index, and cloud-free vitamin D UV dose levels are negatively correlated with COVID-19 prevalence. Authors suggest that low UV exposure can a..
Oct 2
2021
Levels Abdollahzadeh et al., Infection, Genetics and Evolution, doi:10.1016/j.meegid.2021.105098 Association of Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and clinical/severe outcomes of COVID-19 patients
Details   Analysis of 500 hospitalized patients in Iran, showing associations between specific vitamin D receceptor gene polymorphisms and COVID-19 outcomes.
Sep 27
2021
Late Yildiz et al., Bratislava Medical Journal, doi:10.4149/BLL_2021_119
death, ↓80.9%, p=0.04
The prognostic significance of vitamin D deficiency in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia
Details   Retrospective 207 hospitalized patients in Turkey, 37 with vitamin D levels <30ng/ml treated with a 300,000IU vitamin D, showing lower mortality with treatment.
Sep 25
2021
Meta Borsche et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13103596 (preprint 9/25/2021) (meta analysis)
meta-analysis
COVID-19 Mortality Risk Correlates Inversely with Vitamin D3 Status, and a Mortality Rate Close to Zero Could Theoretically Be Achieved at 50 ng/mL 25(OH)D3: Results of a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Details   Meta analysis of 8 studies with vitamin D levels measured pre-infection or on the day of hospital admission, showing a correlation between the levels and mortality. Authors recommend combining vaccination with vitamin D supplementation to..
Sep 24
2021
PrEPPEP Arroyo-Díaz et al., Frontiers in Public Health, doi:10.3389/fpubh.2021.758347
death, ↑12.4%, p=0.59
Previous Vitamin D Supplementation and Morbidity and Mortality Outcomes in People Hospitalised for COVID19: A Cross-Sectional Study
Details   Retrospective 1,267 hospitalized patients in Spain, 189 on vitamin D supplementation before admission, showing lower ICU admission with supplementation, and no statistically significant difference for mortality or ventilation.
Sep 22
2021
Review Castle et al., Journal of Inflammation Research, doi:10.2147/JIR.S323356 (Review)
review
Implications for Systemic Approaches to COVID-19: Effect Sizes of Remdesivir, Tocilizumab, Melatonin, Vitamin D3, and Meditation
Details   Review of the effects of COVID-19 on inflammatory markers, and the effects on those markers of standard treatments vs. vitamin D, melatonin, and meditation, showing comparable or superior effects with the non-standard treatments. The stan..
Sep 22
2021
Levels Marino-Ramirez et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.09.20.21263865 (Preprint) Vitamin D and socioeconomic deprivation mediate COVID-19 ethnic health disparities
Details   UK Biobank retrospective showing that vitamin supplements, including vitamin D, mediate the Asian disparity in COVID-19 susceptibility, and vitamin D levels mediate Asian and Black COVID-19 severity disparities. Authors conclude that the ..
Sep 19
2021
Levels Derakhshanian et al., Food Science & Nutrition, doi:10.1002/fsn3.2591
death, ↓44.8%, p=0.046
The predictive power of serum vitamin D for poor outcomes in COVID-19 patients
Details   Retrospective 290 hospitalized patients in Iran, showing higher mortality with vitamin D deficiency.
Sep 14
2021
Levels Padhi et al., International Immunopharmacology, doi:10.1016/j.intimp.2020.107001 Lower levels of vitamin D are associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection and mortality in the Indian population: An observational study
Details   Analysis of vitamin D levels and COVID-19 in Indian states and union territories, showing an inverse correlation of vitamin D levels with SARS-CoV-2 cases and mortality.
Sep 9
2021
In Vitro Pickard et al., PLOS Pathogens, doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1009840 (In Vitro)
In Vitro
Discovery of re-purposed drugs that slow SARS-CoV-2 replication in human cells
Details   In Vitro studying identifying 35 compounds that inhibit SARS-CoV-2 in Vero cells and hepatocytes when treated prior to infection, and several compounds that slow replication when treated after infection: vitamin D, amodiaquine, atovaquone..
Sep 8
2021
Late Elamir et al., Bone, doi:10.1016/j.bone.2021.116175
death, ↓85.7%, p=0.23
A Randomized Pilot Study Using Calcitriol in Hospitalized Patients
Details   RCT 50 hospitalized patients in the USA, 25 treated with calcitriol, showing significantly improved oxygenation with treatment. Mortality, intubation, ICU admission, and hospitalization time also favored treatment, while not reaching stat..
Sep 5
2021
PrEPPEP Lázaro et al., Endocrine Abstracts, doi:10.1530/endoabs.70.EP552 (Preprint)
cases, ↓26.8%, p=1.00
Vitamin D deficit in type 2 diabetes patients during COVID-19 lockdown with and without supplementation
Details   Analysis of 239 consecutive diabetic patients, 97 taking vitamin D supplements, showing significantly higher vitamin D levels in supplemented patients. There was no statistically significant difference in cases based on supplementation, w..
Sep 1
2021
PrEPPEP Bagheri et al., Journal of Family & Reproductive Health, doi:10.18502/jfrh.v14i3.4668
progression, ↓70.9%, p=0.02
Supplement Usage Pattern in a Group of COVID- 19 Patients in Tehran
Details   Retrospective 510 patients in Iran, showing lower risk of severity with vitamin D (statistically significant) and zinc (not statistically significant) supplementation. IR.TUMS.VCR.REC.1398.1063.
Sep 1
2021
Late Soliman et al., Proceedings of Singapore Healthcare, doi:10.1177/20101058211041405
death, ↓63.4%, p=0.21
Impact of Vitamin D Therapy on the Progress COVID-19: Six Weeks Follow-Up Study of Vitamin D Deficient Elderly Diabetes Patients
Details   Small RCT with 56 eldery diabetes patients hospitalized in Egypt, 40 treated with cholecalciferol, not showing significant differences.
Aug 31
2021
Meta Ben-Eltriki et al., Journal of the American College of Nutrition, doi:10.1080/07315724.2021.1951891 (meta analysis)
meta-analysis
Association between Vitamin D Status and Risk of Developing Severe COVID-19 Infection: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies
Details   Meta analysis of 24 observational studies with 3,637 participants, showing low vitamin D status associated with a higher risk of death and a higher risk of developing severe COVID-19 pneumonia.
Aug 29
2021
Levels Karonova et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13093021
death, ↓77.8%, p=0.006
Low 25(OH)D Level Is Associated with Severe Course and Poor Prognosis in COVID-19
Details   Retrospective 161 hospitalized patients in Russia, showing COVID-19 severity and mortality associated with vitamin D deficiency. Patients in this study may overlap with those in an earlier smaller study from some of the same authors.
Aug 28
2021
Late Assiri et al., Journal of Infection and Public Health, doi:10.1016/j.jiph.2021.08.030
death, ↑66.5%, p=0.60
COVID-19 related treatment and outcomes among COVID-19 ICU patients: A retrospective cohort study
Details   Retrospective 118 ICU patients in Saudi Arabia showing no significant differences in unadjusted results with zinc, vitamin D, and favipiravir treatment.
Aug 27
2021
PrEPPEP Pecina et al., Journal of Primary Care & Community Health, doi:10.1177/21501327211041206
death, ↑70.0%, p=0.52
Vitamin D Status and Severe COVID-19 Disease Outcomes in Hospitalized Patients
Details   Retrospective 92 hospitalized patients not showing significant differences in outcomes based on vitamin D status or supplementation.
Aug 26
2021
PrEPPEP Golabi et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13103368 (preprint 8/26/2021)
cases, ↑25.4%, p=0.56
The Association between Vitamin D and Zinc Status and the Progression of Clinical Symptoms among Outpatients Infected with SARS-CoV-2 and Potentially Non-Infected Participants: A Cross-Sectional Study
Details   Analysis of vitamin D and zinc levels in 53 PCR+ outpatients and 53 matched controls, showing lower zinc levels in COVID-19 patients, and increased risk of cases and symptoms with vitamin D deficiency. There was no significant difference ..
Aug 26
2021
Levels Golabi et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13103368 (preprint 8/26/2021)
symp., ↓90.0%, p<0.0001
The Association between Vitamin D and Zinc Status and the Progression of Clinical Symptoms among Outpatients Infected with SARS-CoV-2 and Potentially Non-Infected Participants: A Cross-Sectional Study
Details   Analysis of vitamin D and zinc levels in 53 PCR+ outpatients and 53 matched controls, showing lower zinc levels in COVID-19 patients, and increased risk of cases and symptoms with vitamin D deficiency. There was no significant difference ..
Aug 25
2021
Meta Varikasuvu et al., Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy, doi:10.1080/14787210.2022.2035217 (meta analysis)
meta-analysis
COVID-19 and Vitamin D (Co-VIVID Study): a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Details   Meta analysis of 6 vitamin D treatment RCTs, showing statistically significant improvements for pooled outcomes and PCR positivity, and positive but not statistically significant improvements for mortality, mechanical ventilation, ICU adm..
Aug 24
2021
Levels Parra-Ortega et al., Nutrition Research and Practice, doi:10.4162/nrp.2021.15.S1.S32
death, ↓98.7%, p<0.0001
25-Hydroxyvitamin D level is associated with mortality in patients with critical COVID-19: a prospective observational study in Mexico City
Details   Prospective study of 94 COVID-19 patients in Mexico, showing lower vitamin D levels associated with mortality in multivariate analysis. 84% of patients were vitamin D deficient, and the remaining 16% had insufficient vitamin D levels.
Aug 20
2021
In Silico Song et al., Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics, doi:10.1080/07391102.2021.1964601
In Silico
Vitamin D3 and its hydroxyderivatives as promising drugs against COVID-19: a computational study
Details   In Silico study suggesting that vitamin D3 and its biologically active hydroxyderivatives can serve as an TMPRSS2 inhibitor, and inhibit ACE2 binding with the SARS-CoV-2 RBD.
Aug 18
2021
Levels Shakeri et al., Journal of Medical Virology, doi:10.1002/jmv.27277 Evaluation of the relationship between serum levels of zinc, vitamin B12, vitamin D, and clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19
Details   Retrospective 293 hospitalized patients in Iran showing lower levels of zinc, vitamin B12, and vitamin D in patients that died, with statistical significance reached only for zinc.
Aug 12
2021
Levels di Filippo et al, The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, doi:10.1210/clinem/dgab599
death, ↓10.7%, p=1.00
Vitamin D levels associate with blood glucose and BMI in COVID-19 patients predicting disease severity
Details   Retrospective 88 patients in Italy, showing vitamin D deficiency associated with severe cases, blood glucose, and BMI.
Aug 11
2021
PrEPPEP Sinaci et al., The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2021.105964
severe case, ↓90.0%, p=0.35
Impact of vitamin D on the course of COVID-19 during pregnancy: A case control study
Details   Retrospective 159 COVID-19+ pregnant women in Turkey and 332 healthy pregnant controls, showing significantly lower vitamin D levels in COVID-19+ patients. 23% of COVID-19 patients where on vitamin D supplementation, while none of the 7 s..
Aug 10
2021
Levels Alpcan et al., Epidemiology & Infection, doi:10.1017/S0950268821001825
cases, ↓73.0%, p=0.0005
Vitamin D levels in children with COVID-19: a report from Turkey
Details   Retrospective 75 COVID-19 hospitalized pediatric patients in Turkey and 80 healthy controls, showing significantly lower vitamin D levels in COVID-19 patients.
Aug 5
2021
Levels Eden et al., BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health, doi:10.1136/bmjnph-2021-000270
death, ↓63.9%, p=0.10
Nutritional parameters and outcomes in patients admitted to intensive care with COVID-19: a retrospective single-centre service evaluation
Details   Retrospective 72 ICU patients in the UK, showing higher mortality with vitamin D deficiency, not reaching statistical significance.
Aug 5
2021
Levels Ribeiro et al., Clinica Chimica Acta, doi:10.1016/j.cca.2021.08.003
cases, ↓50.5%, p=0.01
Previous vitamin D status and total cholesterol are associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection
Details   Retrospective 1,634 patients tested for SARS-CoV-2 in Brazil, showing vitamin D levels <30ng/mL associated with greater odds of a positive SARS-CoV-2 test in patients older than 49 years.
Aug 5
2021
Levels Nimavat et al., Annals of Medicine and Surgery, doi:10.1016/j.amsu.2021.102661
death, ↓50.4%, p=0.17
Vitamin D deficiency and COVID-19: A case-control study at a tertiary care hospital in India
Details   Case control study with 156 PCR+ cases in India and 204 controls, showing more frequent vitamin D deficiency in COVID-19 patients, and an association between lower vitamin D levels and COVID-19 severity.
Aug 4
2021
PrEPPEP Mohseni et al., Nutrition & Food Science, doi:10.1108/NFS-11-2020-0421
cases, ↓12.4%, p=0.09
Do body mass index (BMI) and history of nutritional supplementation play a role in the severity of COVID-19? A retrospective study
Details   Retrospective 603 patients in Iran, 192 taking vitamin D supplements, showing no significant difference in COVID-19 cases in unadjusted results. IR.SHOUSHTAR.REC.1399.015.
Jul 30
2021
Levels Matin et al., Archives of Microbiology, doi:10.1007/s00203-021-02482-5
cases, ↓66.1%, p<0.0001
The sufficient vitamin D and albumin level have a protective effect on COVID-19 infection
Details   Case control study with 191 COVID-19 patients and 203 healthy controls in Iran, showing an association between vitamin D deficiency and COVID-19 infection and severity. 84.4% of COVID-19 patients had vitamin D deficiency.
Jul 29
2021
Levels Desai et al., Open Forum Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1093/ofid/ofab408 Vitamin K & D Deficiencies Are Independently Associated With COVID-19 Disease Severity
Details   Case control study with 100 COVID-19+ patients and 50 age and gender matched controls, showing vitamin K and vitamin D levels independently associated with COVID-19 severity.
Jul 29
2021
Levels Al-Salman et al., Nutrition & Food Science, doi:10.1108/NFS-05-2021-0143
ICU, ↓44.4%, p=0.03
In COVID-19 patients, low 25-hydroxyvitamin D level in serum is associated with longer viral clearance time and higher risk of intensive care unit admission
Details   Retrospective 450 hospitalized patients in Bahrain, showing increased risk of ICU admission and slower viral clearance with vitamin D deficiency.
Jul 29
2021
Meta Ghasemian et al., The International Journal of Clinical Practice, doi:10.1111/ijcp.14675 (meta analysis)
meta-analysis
The Role of Vitamin D in the Age of COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Details   Systematic review and meta analysis of 23 studies, finding significantly higher risk of COVID-19 cases and severity with vitamin D deficiency. Mortality risk was higher with deficiency, but not reaching statistical significance, OR 1.6 [0..
Jul 29
2021
Early, PrEP Annweiler et al., The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, doi:0.1016/j.jsbmb.2021.105958
death, ↓64.2%, p=0.002
Vitamin D supplementation prior to or during COVID-19 associated with better 3-month survival in geriatric patients: Extension phase of the GERIA-COVID study
Details   Report on extended results from the GERIA-COVID study, showing significantly lower mortality at 3 months with vitamin D treatment. Results combine prophylaxis and early treatment.
Jul 27
2021
In Silico Qayyum et al., Endocrinology and Metabolism, doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00174.2021
In Silico
Vitamin D and lumisterol novel metabolites can inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication machinery enzymes
Details   In Silico analysis showing that vitamin D and lumisterol metabolites may inhibit SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and RdRP.
Jul 27
2021
Levels Cozier et al., PLoS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0255132
cases, ↓38.6%, p=0.04
Lower serum 25(OH)D levels associated with higher risk of COVID-19 infection in U.S. Black women
Details   Prospective study of vitamin D levels and COVID-19 infection in the Black Women's Health Study, showing higher risk of infection for lower vitamin D levels. Vitamin D levels were from 3-7 years before infection. Levels at the time of infe..
Jul 27
2021
PrEPPEP Israel et al., Epidemiology and Global Health Microbiology and Infectious Disease, doi:10.7554/eLife.68165
hosp., ↓13.1%, p=0.003
Identification of drugs associated with reduced severity of COVID-19: A case-control study in a large population
Details   Case control study examining medication usage with a healthcare database in Israel, showing lower risk of hospitalization with vitamin D (defined as being picked up within 35 days prior to PCR+). Other patients may have acquired vitamin D..
Jul 26
2021
PrEPPEP Jimenez et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13082559
death, ↓50.1%, p=0.02
Mortality in Hemodialysis Patients with COVID-19, the Effect of Paricalcitol or Calcimimetics
Details   Retrospective 288 hemodialysis patients in Spain, 137 with existing vitamin D treatments (94 with paricalcitol), showing lower mortality with treatment. There was no significant difference in outcomes based on serum levels, however author..
Jul 23
2021
Late Güven et al, European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, doi:10.1038/s41430-021-00984-5
death, ↓24.8%, p=0.32
The effect of high-dose parenteral vitamin D3 on COVID-19-related inhospital mortality in critical COVID-19 patients during intensive care unit admission: an observational cohort study
Details   Retrospective 175 ICU patients, 113 treated with a single dose of 300,000IU intramuscular cholecalciferol, showing lower mortality with treatment, but not reaching statistical significance. Calcifediol or calcitriol, which avoids several ..
Jul 17
2021
PrEPPEP Oristrell et al., Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, doi:10.1007/s40618-021-01639-9
death, ↑1.0%, p=0.91
Vitamin D supplementation and COVID-19 risk: a population-based, cohort study
Details   Retrospective study of cholecalciferol and calcitriol supplementation in Catalonia showing a small but significant lower risk of cases with cholecalciferol, but no significant difference for mortality, or for calcitriol supplementation. S..
Jul 9
2021
Early Rabail et al., Food Science & Nutrition, doi:10.1002/fsn3.2458 Nutritional and lifestyle changes required for minimizing the recovery period in home quarantined COVID-19 patients of Punjab, Pakistan
Details   Survey of 80 recovered COVID-19 patients in Pakistan, showing faster recovery with vitamin C, vitamin D, and zinc supplementation.
Jul 7
2021
Levels González-Estevez et al., International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, doi:10.3390/ijerph18147266
symp. case, ↓25.0%, p=0.04
Association of Food Intake Quality with Vitamin D in SARS-CoV-2 Positive Patients from Mexico: A Cross-Sectional Study
Details   Retrospective survey analysis of 40 COVID+ patients in Mexico, showing higher risk of symptoms with vitamin D deficiency. Higher food intake quality and intense physical activity were associated with vitamin D sufficiency. Insufficient in..
Jul 6
2021
PrEPPEP Margolin et al., Journal of Evidence-Based Integrative Medicine, doi:10.1177/2515690X211026193
cases, ↓94.4%, p=0.003
20-Week Study of Clinical Outcomes of Over-the-Counter COVID-19 Prophylaxis and Treatment
Details   Retrospective 113 outpatients, 53 (patient choice) treated with zinc, quercetin, vitamin C/D/E, l-lysine, and quina, showing lower cases with treatment. Results are subject to selection bias and limited information on the groups is provid..
Jul 1
2021
Levels Bianconi et al., Nutrition, doi:10.1016/j.nut.2021.111408
death, ↓17.5%, p=0.58
Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its prognostic impact on patients hospitalized with COVID-19
Details   Prospective study of 200 hospitalized patients in Italy, showing 80% of patients had vitamin D deficiency. There was no significant differences in outcomes based on vitamin D levels. There was also no significant difference in vitamin D l..
Jun 24
2021
Late Sabico et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13072170
death, ↑192.1%, p=1.00
Effects of a 2-Week 5000 IU versus 1000 IU Vitamin D3 Supplementation on Recovery of Symptoms in Patients with Mild to Moderate Covid-19: A Randomized Clinical Trial
Details   Small RCT of 69 hospitalized patients comparing 1,000IU and 5,000IU daily cholecalciferol, showing faster recovery with the higher dose (statistically significant only for cough and ageusia).
Jun 24
2021
Meta Pal et al., Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, doi:10.1007/s40618-021-01614-4 (meta analysis)
meta-analysis
Vitamin D supplementation and clinical outcomes in COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Details   Meta analysis of 13 vitamin D treatment studies, showing significantly lower ICU admission/mortality with treatment.
Jun 24
2021
Levels Beigmohammadi et al., Nutrition, doi:10.1016/j.nut.2021.111400 The association between serum levels of micronutrients and the severity of disease in patients with COVID-19
Details   Retrospective 60 ICU patients in Iran, showing that lower levels of vitamin D, magnesium, and zinc were significantly associated with higher APACHE scores (P = 0.001, 0.028, and <0.001, respectively) and higher lung involvement (P = 0.002..
Jun 22
2021
Levels Zelzer et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13072129
death, ↓46.4%, p=0.08
Vitamin D Metabolites and Clinical Outcome in Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients
Details   Retrospective 148 patients in Austria, showing no statistically significant differences in vitamin D levels and metabolites for mortality or respiratory support.
Jun 17
2021
Levels Jude et al., Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, doi:10.1210/clinem/dgab439
hosp., ↓71.6%, p<0.0001
Vitamin D deficiency is associated with higher hospitalisation risk from COVID-19: a retrospective case-control study
Details   Retrospective 80,670 people in the UK with vitamin D levels measured within the last 12 months, showing higher risk of hospitalization with low vitamin D levels.
Jun 14
2021
PrEPPEP Campi et al., BMC Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1186/s12879-021-06281-7
severe case, ↓88.4%, p<0.0001
Vitamin D and COVID-19 severity and related mortality: a prospective study in Italy
Details   Prospective study of 103 hospitalized patients in Italy, showing very high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency, and increased severity for lower vitamin D levels. Vitamin D supplementation was significantly less common for cases.
Jun 7
2021
Levels Dror et al., PLOS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0263069 (preprint 6/7/2021)
severe case, ↓84.8%, p=0.001
Pre-infection 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels and association with severity of COVID-19 illness
Details   Retrospective 253 hospitalized patients in Israel showing higher mortality and higher risk of severe cases with vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D levels were measured 14 to 730 days before the COVID-19 test. Adjusted results are only provid..
Jun 6
2021
Levels Diaz-Curiel, Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2021.105928
ICU, ↓73.2%, p=0.02
The relationship between 25(OH) vitamin D levels and COVID-19 onset and disease course in Spanish patients
Details   Retrospective 1,549 patients in Spain showing that the frequency of vitamin D deficiency was higher in admitted patients compared to the overall Spanish population, and that vitamin D deficiency was associated with increased risk of ICU a..
Jun 4
2021
Levels Kotur et al., Frontiers in Nutrition, doi:10.3389/fnut.2021.689419 Association of Vitamin D, Zinc and Selenium Related Genetic Variants With COVID-19 Disease Severity
Details   Analysis of variants in genes significant for the status of vitamin D in 120 Serbian COVID-19 patients, showing that vitamin D related genetic variants DHCR7/NADSYN rs12785878 and CYP2R1 rs10741657 were associated with severe COVID-19 in ..
Jun 2
2021
PrEPPEP Fasano et al., Movement Disorders, doi:10.1002/mds.28176
cases, ↓42.0%, p=0.048
COVID-19 in Parkinson’s Disease Patients Living in Lombardy, Italy
Details   Retrospective phone survey of 1,486 Parkinson's disease patients in Italy, showing lower risk of COVID-19 cases with vitamin D supplementation. This paper also presents a case control study of PD patients and family member control patients.
Jun 1
2021
Levels Butler-Laporte et al., PLOS Medicine, doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1003605 Vitamin D and COVID-19 susceptibility and severity in the COVID-19 Host Genetics Initiative: A Mendelian randomization study
Details   Mendelian randomization study not finding significant differences in COVID-19 outcomes based on vitamin D level. This study does not compare patients with deficiency/insuffiency/sufficiency, only providing ORs for increase in D levels. Au..
May 31
2021
Levels Pimental et al., Clinical Nutrition ESPEN, doi:10.1016/j.clnesp.2021.05.021
death, ↓29.4%, p=1.00
Low vitamin D levels and increased neutrophil in patients admitted at ICU with COVID-19
Details   Retrospective 25 ICU patients in Brazil, showing vitamin D deficiency associated with higher neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio. There appears to be a typo in the mortality percentage for vitamin D deficiency (20% is not valid for the group size..
May 29
2021
Levels Sooriyaarachchi et al., Clinical Nutrition ESPEN, doi:10.1016/j.clnesp.2021.05.011 Impact of vitamin D deficiency on COVID-19
Details   Analysis of vitamin D deficiency and COVID-19 cases and deaths in 47 countries, showing vitamin D deficiency significantly associated with mortality.
May 28
2021
Early Sánchez-Zuno, J. Clinical Medicine, doi:10.3390/jcm10112378
severe case, ↓89.4%, p=0.04
Vitamin D Levels in COVID-19 Outpatients from Western Mexico: Clinical Correlation and Effect of Its Supplementation
Details   Very small 42 PCR+ outpatient RCT in Mexico, 22 treated with vitamin D. Most patients had insufficient vitamin D levels, there were more symptoms in those with insufficient levels, and there were less cases with fever or with >3 symptoms ..
May 28
2021
Levels Galaznik et al., Journal of Clinical Oncology, doi:10.1200/JCO.2021.39.15_suppl.6589 (Preprint)
cases, ↓35.1%, p=0.01
Assessment of vitamin D deficiency and COVID-19 diagnosis in patients with breast or prostate cancer using electronic medical records
Details   Retrospective 16,287 breast cancer and 14,919 prostate cancer showing increased risk of COVID-19 cases with vitamin D deficiency.
May 26
2021
In Silico Al-Mazaideh et al., Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, doi:10.9734/jpri/2021/v33i29B31603
In Silico
Vitamin D is a New Promising Inhibitor to the Main Protease (Mpro) of COVID-19 by Molecular Docking
Details   In Silico study showing vitamin D binding with Mpro of SARS-CoV-2. Among the compounds tested, vitamin D had the highest potential interaction in terms of total H-bond, van der Waal, torsional, and desolvation energy. Authors recommend ad..
May 25
2021
Levels Papadimitriou et al., World J. Virology, doi:10.5501/wjv.v10.i3.111] Association between population vitamin D status and SARS-CoV-2 related serious-critical illness and deaths: An ecological integrative approach
Details   Country analysis showing negative correlations between population vitamin D level and severe cases and death (but not with cases overall). Authors conclude that higher vitamin D levels may protect from severe cases and death, even more so..
May 22
2021
Early Asimi et al., Endocrine Abstracts, doi:10.1530/endoabs.73.PEP14.2 (Preprint)
ventilation, ↓97.4%, p<0.0001
Selenium, zinc, and vitamin D supplementation affect the clinical course of COVID-19 infection in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis
Details   Retrospective 356 Hashimoto's thyroiditis outpatients, 270 taking vitamin D, zinc, and selenium, showing significantly lower hospitalization with treatment. Authors adjust for age, gender, BMI, and smoking status, reporting statistically ..
May 21
2021
Levels Reis et al., The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, doi:10.1093/ajcn/nqab151
death, ↓23.0%, p=0.82
Influence of vitamin D status on hospital length of stay and prognosis in hospitalized patients with moderate to severe COVID-19: a multicenter prospective cohort study
Details   Prospective study of 220 hospitalized patients in Brazil, showing no significant differences based on vitamin D levels. There was a trend (p=0.057) towards longer hospital stay for patients with levels <10ng/mL.
May 21
2021
Late Alcala-Diaz et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13061760
death, ↓80.8%, p=0.04
Calcifediol Treatment and Hospital Mortality Due to COVID-19: A Cohort Study
Details   Retrospective 537 patients in Spain, 79 treated with calcifediol, showing significantly lower mortality with treatment. The treated group had a higher risk of comorbidity, whereas the control group had lower O2 saturation, higher CURB‐65,..
May 19
2021
Levels AlSafar et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13051714
death, ↓59.3%, p=0.048
COVID-19 Disease Severity and Death in Relation to Vitamin D Status among SARS-CoV-2-Positive UAE Residents
Details   Retrospective 464 patients in United Arab Emirates showing low D levels at first hospital visit associated with higher COVID-19 severity and mortality.
May 19
2021
Levels Li et al., JAMA Network Open, doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.11634
cases, ↓8.6%, p=0.24
Assessment of the Association of Vitamin D Level With SARS-CoV-2 Seropositivity Among Working-Age Adults
Details   Cohort study of 18,148 patients in the USA showing low vitamin D associated with COVID-19 PCR+ status before adjustments but not after. Authors state that "low vitamin D levels were not independently associated with the risk of..
May 18
2021
Levels Davoudi et al., BMC Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1186/s12879-021-06168-7
death, ↑12.3%, p=1.00
Lack of association between vitamin D insufficiency and clinical outcomes of patients with COVID-19 infection
Details   Retrospective 153 hospitalized patients in Iran, showing no significant difference in outcomes based on vitamin D levels. Adjusted results are only provided for vitamin D as a continuous variable.
May 18
2021
PrEPPEP Dudley et al., BJPsych Bulletin, doi:10.1192/bjb.2021.55
symp. case, ↓22.4%, p=0.65
Revisiting vitamin D status and supplementation for in-patients with intellectual and developmental disability in the North of England, UK
Details   Retrospective 64 patients with intellectual and developmental disability in the UK, showing no sigificant difference in COVID-19 status with vitamin D supplementation. Only 6 patients were not on vitamin D supplementation.
May 8
2021
Levels Savitri et al., Annals of the Romanian Society for Cell Biology, 25:6
symp. case, ↓88.0%, p<0.0001
Comparison between Vitamin D Level of Asymptomatic Confirmed Covid-19 Patients with Symptomatic Confirmed Covid-19 Patients in Makassar
Details   Retrospective 42 PCR+ patients in Indonesia, showing significantly higher risk of symptomatic cases with vitamin D deficiency.
May 7
2021
Levels Bychinin et al., Journal of Clinical Practice, doi:10.17816/clinpract64976
death, ↓36.2%, p=0.03
Prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in COVID-19 patients in the intensive care unit
Details   Retrospective 103 COVID-19 ICU patients in Russia, showing higher mortality with low vitamin D levels in unadjusted results.
May 3
2021
PrEPPEP Levitus et al., Journal of the Endocrine Society, doi: 10.1210/jendso/bvab048.567
severe case, ↓30.8%, p=0.25
The Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Severe COVID-19 Outcomes in Patients With Vitamin D Insufficiency
Details   Retrospective 129 hospitalized patients with vitamin D levels measured within 90 days prior to admission, showing lower, but not statistically significant, risk of severe cases with vitamin D supplementation among patients with levels <20..
Apr 30
2021
Late Elhadi et al., PLOS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0251085
death, ↓23.4%, p=0.29
Epidemiology, outcomes, and utilization of intensive care unit resources for critically ill COVID-19 patients in Libya: A prospective multi-center cohort study
Details   Prospective study of 465 COVID-19 ICU patients in Libya showing no significant differences with treatment.
Apr 30
2021
Levels Azadeh et al., J. Mazandaran Univ. Med. Sci. 31:195 Serum Vitamin D Concentrations in CoVID19 Patients
Details   Retrospective 80 COVID-19 patients in Iran and 70 healthy controls, showing significantly lower vitamin D levels in COVID-19 patients.
Apr 29
2021
PrEPPEP Loucera et al., Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-021-02701-5 (preprint 4/29/21)
death, ↓33.0%, p=0.009
Real world evidence of calcifediol or vitamin D prescription and mortality rate of COVID-19 in a retrospective cohort of hospitalized Andalusian patients
Details   Retrospective 15,968 hospitalized patients in Spain showing a significant reduction in mortality associated with the prescription of vitamin D, especially calcifediol, within 15-30 days prior to hospitalization.
Apr 26
2021
Levels Al-Daghri et al., Journal of Translational Medicine, doi:10.1186/s12967-021-02838-x Vitamin D status of Arab Gulf residents screened for SARS-CoV-2 and its association with COVID-19 infection: a multi-centre case–control study
Details   Case control study with 220 adults showing significantly lower vitamin D levels in PCR+ patients.
Apr 18
2021
Levels Elham et al., Clinical Nutrition ESPEN, doi:10.1016/j.clnesp.2021.03.040 Serum vitamin D, calcium, and zinc levels in patients with COVID-19
Details   Case control study with 93 hospitalized patients in Iran and 186 control patients, showing significantly lower vitamin D, zinc, and calcium levels in cases. IR.SHOUSHTAR.REC.1399.017.
Apr 17
2021
Review Shah Alam et al., International Immunopharmacology, doi:10.1016/j.intimp.2021.107686 (Review)
review
The role of vitamin D in reducing SARS-CoV-2 infection: An update
Details   Review of vitamin D for COVID-19 noting that infections are likely to be more prevalent in the winter season; clinical trials show vitamin D as a potential therapeutic agent; vitamin D is beneficial against COVID-19 by reducing inflammato..
Apr 8
2021
PrEPPEP Abdulateef et al., Open Medicine, doi:10.1515/med-2021-0273
hosp., ↓40.9%, p=0.30
COVID-19 severity in relation to sociodemographics and vitamin D use
Details   Survey of 428 recovered COVID-19 patients in Iraq, showing fewer hospital visits for patients on prophylactic vitamin C or D. Hospitalization was lower for those on vitamin C, D, or zinc, without statistical significance.
Apr 6
2021
PrEPPEP Oristrell et al., Biomedicines, doi:10.3390/biomedicines9050509 (preprint 4/6/21)
death, ↓43.0%, p=0.001
Association of Calcitriol Supplementation with Reduced COVID-19 Mortality in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: A Population-based Study
Details   Retrospective study of calcitriol supplementation with chronic kidney disease patients in Catalonia showing lower cases, severe cases, and mortality with supplementation. A dose-response relationship was found for severe cases and mortali..
Apr 5
2021
Levels Ünsal et al., Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, doi:10.1007/s40618-021-01566-9
death, ↓80.6%, p=0.23
Retrospective analysis of vitamin D status on ınflammatory markers and course of the disease in patients with COVID-19 infection
Details   Retrospective 56 patients in Turkey showing greater need for oxygen therapy and higher mortality with vitamin D deficiency, and significantly lower risk of pneumonia with vitamin D supplementation.
Apr 2
2021
Levels Livingston et al., Int. J. Clinical Practive, doi:10.1111/ijcp.14166
cases, ↓50.9%, p=0.02
Detectable respiratory SARS‐CoV‐2 RNA is associated with low vitamin D levels and high social deprivation
Details   Retrospective 104 consecutive patients tested for COVID-19 in a hospital in the UK, showing lower vitamin D and higher social deprivation associated with COVID-19 positive results.
Mar 31
2021
Levels Bayramoğlu et al., European Journal of Pediatrics, doi:10.1007/s00431-021-04030-1
severe case, ↓69.5%, p=0.03
The association between vitamin D levels and the clinical severity and inflammation markers in pediatric COVID-19 patients: single-center experience from a pandemic hospital
Details   Retrospective 103 pediatric hospitalized COVID-19 patients, showing an association between vitamin D deficiency and clinical severity.
Mar 30
2021
PrEPPEP Holt et al., Thorax, doi:10.1136/thoraxjnl-2021-217487
cases, ↓6.8%, p=0.53
Risk factors for developing COVID-19: a population-based longitudinal study (COVIDENCE UK)
Details   Prospective survey-based study with 15,227 people in the UK, showing lower risk of COVID-19 cases with vitamin A, vitamin D, zinc, selenium, probiotics, and inhaled corticosteroids; and higher risk with metformin and vitamin C. Statistica..
Mar 29
2021
Meta Akbar et al., Front. Nutr. 8:660420, doi:10.3389/fnut.2021.660420 (meta analysis)
meta-analysis
Low Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (Vitamin D) Level Is Associated With Susceptibility to COVID-19, Severity, and Mortality: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Details   Systematic review and meta analysis showing that low vitamin D levels was associated with COVID-19 cases, severity, and mortality.
Mar 27
2021
Levels Gaudio et al., International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, doi:10.3390/ijerph18073491
cases, ↓79.3%, p<0.0001
Vitamin D Levels Are Reduced at the Time of Hospital Admission in Sicilian SARS-CoV-2-Positive Patients
Details   Retrospective 50 COVID-19 hospitalized patients in Italy with vitamin D levels measured on admission, and 100 matched control patients, showing significantly lower vitamin D levels in COVID-19 patients. Vitamin D levels were also lower in..
Mar 27
2021
Levels Freitas et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.03.22.21254032 (Preprint)
death, ↓41.2%, p=0.02
Vitamin D-related polymorphisms and vitamin D levels as risk biomarkers of COVID-19 infection severity
Details   Analysis of 491 hospitalized patients in Portugal showing that polymorphisms in the vitamin D binding protein encoded by the GC gene are related to COVID-19 severity (p = 0.005). There was an association between vitamin D polygenic risk s..
Mar 26
2021
Meta Petrelli et al., The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2021.105883 (meta analysis)
meta-analysis
Therapeutic and prognostic role of vitamin D for COVID-19 infection: A systematic review and meta-analysis of 43 observational studies
Details   Meta analysis showing vitamin D deficiency associated with higher risk of COVID-19, worse severity, and higher mortality. Supplementation with vitamin D reduced the risk of severe cases and mortality.
Mar 22
2021
Review Kohlmeier et al., BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health, doi:10.1136/bmjnph-2021-000265 (Review)
review
When Mendelian randomisation fails
Details   Analysis of why Mendelian randomization may fail in vitamin D studies. Authors suggest that it may come down to the use of 25(OH)D concentration in serum as a less than ideal proxy for vitamin D status of cells involved in the immune resp..
Mar 19
2021
Levels Meltzer et al., JAMA Netw Open., doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.4117
cases, ↓34.6%, p=0.11
Association of Vitamin D Levels, Race/Ethnicity, and Clinical Characteristics With COVID-19 Test Results
Details   Retrospective 4,638 individuals with vitamin D levels within 1 year before COVID-19 testing, showing higher risk of COVID-19 PCR+ for vitamin D deficient individuals, and lower (but not statistically significant) cases for individuals usi..
Mar 14
2021
Levels Vanegas-Cedillo, medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.03.12.21253490
death, ↓52.6%, p=0.006
Serum Vitamin D Levels Are Associated With Increased COVID-19 Severity and Mortality Independent of Whole-Body and Visceral Adiposity
Details   Retrospective 551 moderate to severe COVID-19 patients in Mexico showing vitamin D ≤12ng/mL independently associated with COVID-19 mortality. No association was found between vitamin D levels and the need for intubation. Vitamin D deficie..
Mar 13
2021
Levels Jayawardena et al., Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews, doi:10.1016/j.dsx.2021.03.006 Impact of the vitamin D deficiency on COVID-19 infection and mortality in Asian countries
Details   Analysis of Asian countries finding that prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and lower vitamin D levels were associated with COVID-19 infection and mortality. Positive correlations were observed for prevalence of vitamin D deficiency with ..
Mar 12
2021
Levels Ahmad et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.03.11.21253361 (Preprint)
death, ↓53.6%, p=0.03
Mean Vitamin D levels in 19 European Countries & COVID-19 Mortality over 10 months
Details   Retrospective 19 European countries showing countries with mean vitamin D levels > 50nmol/L have a 2.2 times lower risk of mortality (p = 0.032) compared to those with mean levels < 50 nmol/L.
Mar 9
2021
Meta Nikniaz et al., Pharmaceutical Sciences, doi:10.34172/PS.2021.13
death, ↓73.6%, p=0.008
The impact of vitamin D supplementation on mortality rate and clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Details   Meta analysis of 4 supplementation studies, finding that vitamin D supplementation "seems to decrease the mortality rate, the severity of the disease, and serum levels of the inflammatory markers". Mortality odds ratio OR 0.264,..
Mar 8
2021
Levels Charoenngam et al., Endocrine Practice, doi:10.1016/j.eprac.2021.02.013
death, ↓34.1%, p=0.26
Association of vitamin D status with hospital morbidity and mortality in adult hospitalized COVID-19 patients
Details   Retrospective 287 hospitalized patients in the USA showing significantly lower mortality with vitamin D sufficiency in elderly patients and patients without obesity; and lower mortality for all patients but not reaching statistical signif..
Mar 7
2021
Late Notz et al., Clinical Nutrition, doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2021.03.001 Vitamin D deficiency in critically ill COVID-19 ARDS patients
Details   Retrospective 26 ICU patients showing that the majority of patients had vitamin D deficiency. There was no statistically significant association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D status and clinical course, however low levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitami..
Mar 5
2021
Levels Kralj et al., Critical Case Reports, doi:10.1002/ccr3.4010 Vitamin D and COVID‐19 in an immunocompromised patient with multiple comorbidities—A Case Report
Details   Case report of a high-risk immunocompromised patient with multiple comorbidities that had a mild case of COVID-19. The patient had UVB phototherapy three months earlier and had normal vitamin D levels (92.2 nmol/L, normal range 50-125).
Mar 5
2021
Late Mazziotti et al., J Endocrinol. Invest., doi:10.1007/s40618-021-01535-2
death, ↓19.0%, p=0.49
Vitamin D deficiency, secondary hyperparathyroidism and respiratory insufficiency in hospitalized patients with COVID-19
Details   Retrospective 348 hospitalized patients in Italy showing vitamin D deficiency associated with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. Vitamin D supplementation during hospitalization was not significantly associated with mortality or ventila..
Mar 4
2021
PrEPPEP Ullah et al., Pancreatology, doi:10.1016/j.pan.2020.10.005
death, ↑42.1%, p=0.34
COVID-19 in patients with hepatobiliary and pancreatic diseases in East London: a single-centre cohort study
Details   Retrospective 15,440 patients with hepatobiliary and pancreatic diseases in the United Kingdom, 226 with confirmed COVID-19, showing higher risk with vitamin D supplementation. Results are likely confounded by impaired vitamin D processin..
Mar 4
2021
Levels Lohia et al., American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism, doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00517.2020
death, ↓14.7%, p=0.56
Exploring the link between vitamin D and clinical outcomes in COVID-19
Details   Retrospective 270 patients with vitamin D levels measured in the last year, showing no significant difference in outcomes based on vitamin D levels or vitamin D supplementation.
Mar 3
2021
Levels Ricci et al., Respiratory Research, doi:10.1186/s12931-021-01666-3
death, ↓87.6%, p=0.07
Circulating Vitamin D levels status and clinical prognostic indices in COVID-19 patients
Details   Retrospective 52 hospitalized COVID-19 patients showing that vitamin D deficiency is associated with compromised inflammatory responses and higher pulmonary involvement. Vitamin D deficient patients also showed higher mortality, although ..
Feb 28
2021
Late Karen et al., International Journal of Progressive Science and Technologies, doi:10.52155/ijpsat.v27.2.3269 Vitamin D Associated Peculiarities in Women with Mild Covid-19 and Effect of Calcifediol on the Level of Vitamin D and Possibly, on Disease Outcome - Prospective Pilot Study
Details   Prospective study of 30 female COVID-19 patients, all treated with calcifediol on admission, showing significantly increased vitamin D levels with treatment. There was no mortality.
Feb 24
2021
PrEPPEP Sulli et al., Nutrients, doi:10.3390/nu13030717
cases, ↓75.6%, p=0.0002
Vitamin D and Lung Outcomes in Elderly COVID-19 Patients
Details   Retrospective 65 elderly COVID-19 patients and 65 matched controls, showing lower vitamin D levels associated with more severe lung involvement, longer disease duration, and higher mortality. Vitamin D supplementation was less common in t..
Feb 23
2021
Late Lakkireddy et al., Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-021-90189-4 (preprint 2/23/21)
death, ↓60.9%, p=0.27
Impact of daily high dose oral vitamin D therapy on the inflammatory markers in patients with COVID 19 disease
Details   RCT 44 treatment and 43 control patients with vitamin D levels <30ng/ml, showing significant reduction in inflammatory markers with treatment of 60,000IU vitamin D per day for 8 days (10 days for BMI >25). Death and ICU admission was lowe..
Feb 19
2021
Levels Gavioli et al., Journal of the American College of Nutrition, doi:10.1080/07315724.2020.1869626
death, ↑4.7%, p=0.83
An Evaluation of Serum 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D Levels in Patients with COVID-19 in New York City
Details   Retrospective 437 mostly serious condition (85% hospitalized) patients in New York, showing vitamin D deficiency associated with increased likelihood of oxygen support, but no association with mortality and hospitalization. Multivariate a..
Feb 18
2021
Levels Infante et al., Journal of the American College of Nutrition, doi:10.1080/07315724.2021.1877580
death, ↓54.8%, p=0.046
Low Vitamin D Status at Admission as a Risk Factor for Poor Survival in Hospitalized Patients With COVID-19: An Italian Retrospective Study
Details   Retrospective 137 hospitalized patients in Italy. All patients had low vitamin D levels, and lower levels were associated with higher mortality. In multivariate logistic regression, vitamin D levels were significantly inversely associated..
Feb 17
2021
Early Burahee et al., SICOT-J, doi:10.1051/sicotj/2021001
death, ↓93.3%, p=0.01
Older patients with proximal femur fractures and SARS-CoV-2 infection – An observational study
Details   Small retrospective study of 29 hip fracture patients in the UK, 14 with COVID-19. All COVID-19 patients were treated with vitamin D except for 2 where testing and supplementation was missed due to a clerical error. The two COVID-19 patie..
Feb 12
2021
Levels Basaran et al., Bratislava Medical Journal, doi:10.4149/bll_2021_034
severe case, ↓68.6%, p=0.005
The relationship between vitamin D and the severity of COVID-19
Details   Prospective study of 204 patients with COVID-19-like pneumonia in Turkey, 42 outpatients (mild cases), and 162 inpatients (serious cases), showing significantly higher risk of severe cases with vitamin D deficiency.
Feb 12
2021
Levels Susianti et al., Journal of Medical Biochemistry, doi:10.5937/jomb0-30228
death, ↓91.5%, p=0.32